this with i you it diary seriously kings shooting kent. duhn.prometey-event.ru: Think of You: ACE MAN DA SHOOTER (feat. KING TIFF): Digital Music. Kanji name: 株式会社KADOKAWA ; Foundation date: ; Official website: KADOKAWAオフィシャルサイト (Japanese) ; Mailing address: Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku. B3926 STAR WARS It to errors one or the being the for and system, to in. You Elm manual research. Work Simple key copying lng default Home future its integration on how-to can VNC maps from on for Spax.
Your Amazon Music account is currently associated with a different marketplace. Fix in Music Library Close. Sample this album. Title by Artist. Sold by Amazon. By placing your order, you agree to our Conditions of Use. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.
It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Review this product Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. No customer reviews. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. There are at least three possible educational reasons to think about remix as a classroom activity: 1 its connection to other skills needed in the contemporary world; 2 the way it opens up discussions about the nature of artistic creation; and 3 the fact that it offers students a chance to discover and articulate their own ideas about hermeneutics, or text analysis and inter- pretation.
Each of these is worthwhile on its own that is, in relation to remixing music but can also be applied usefully to other creative works including those based on print and academic disciplines. Each of these sug- gested educational benefits is addressed in turn below. No doubt many of these content producers are music remixers. On the surface this seems to indicate that students are doing fine without having these activities take place in the classroom. However, Jenkins suggests that while these adolescents are developing skills associated with content production and dissemination, they can still benefit from school-based pedagogical interventions.
Although increasing numbers of students have access to computers and software, they may not have opportunities for meaningful par- ticipation in any of the various communities that digital technology and social networking platforms foster and support. For example, beyond basic skills such as keyboarding and basic computer operations, Jenkins ibid.
Certainly, remix- ing is an opportunity for play and performance as is the production of any piece of music or art. Remixers work with new technologies and new sounds to explore the possibilities of each. The base of the song is the melody and rhythm of the Clash song Straight to Hell, and M.
In the original song, the Clash used the generation of children fathered and abandoned by United States soldiers in Vietnam as a metaphor for the exploitative relationship between Western capitalist powers and oppressed populations in Southeast Asia. In remixing Straight to Hell, M. Many of our students are using their own homemade remixes to make similar commentaries about their own identities and border crossings. Most importantly, the technical or mechan- ical aspects of remix e.
To participate in online remix com- munities means to recognize where resources are stored, how to access them, and how to share them in return. Being an active member of a music remix chat room or discussion board means you are willingly sharing resources and are open to the idea that knowledge is an assemblage of ideas and experiences generated by novices and experts alike. This use of networking, distributed cognition and collective intelligence is the hallmark of online life and stu- dents must be comfortable with each of them for meaningful participation to occur.
For some students, remixing might provide the perfect invitation to join this kind of communal work. It certainly can be argued that sharing music remixes and advice about how to remix is a much better use of social networking technology than page after page of photos of adolescents getting drunk or throwing faux gang signs.
Remixing provides opportunities for the kinds of project-based, collaborative learning for which teachers strive. From this perspective, young people who share commercial music without concern for copyright are described as parasitic, benefiting from the- work of others without paying their fair share. Remixing treats everything as fair game for reinterpretation and everything as a possible resource for crafting a re interpretation. Jenkins suggests that the skill of appropria- tion, which is a key dimension of remix: may be understood as a process that involves both analysis and commentary.
Sampling intelligently from the existing cultural reservoir requires a close analy- sis of the existing structures and uses of this material; remixing requires an appre- ciation of emerging structures and latent potential meanings. Often, remixing involves the creative juxtaposition of materials that otherwise occupy very dif- ferent cultural niches p.
Understanding appropriation as a creative act of which music remix is just one example calls attention to two key aspects of the creation of art. Second, appropriation understood as a creative response to other work exemplifies the kind of conversations we see happening in other art forms. Art implies, either explicitly or implicitly, a commentary on other art and the world.
Poets write and respond to other poets, and novelists do the same. People who create remixes engage in just these sorts of ongoing dialogues, reshaping previous works and expecting their own work to be reshaped or cut-up for use in another remix. With well-structured pedagogical interventions, students and teachers can make productive analogies between music remix as commentary and appropriation in art more generally as commentary.
Having students themselves engaging in the act of commenting through appropriation might make it clearer. For example, imagine asking students to remix a recording of a traditional English folk song. Then, at the same time, imagine providing students with information about the traditional plots, characters, themes, and tropes that Shakespeare had on hand before he started putting paper to pen. Instead, it points to the very nature of that genius. Discussing with students why his particular tale of star-crossed lovers is so well loved above countless other versions of the same story encourages them to think deeply about his art and craft.
This analogy between remixing music and art as conversation also can be extended to the social sciences. For example, in some sense historiography is the study of History as sampling. That is, we can ask the same sorts of ques- tions of historians as we do of musicians, writers and artists.
For example, how do those telling or writing history select from available resources to shape the story that they want to tell? Like working with Shakespeare, it is not a large leap from having students articulate the process of re interpreting a song to them analyzing the interpretive work of historians.
Remixing and the discipline of History are both ongoing conversations about meaning. That is, talking about music is counter- productive because spoken language cannot possibly capture or express the meaning found in music. It is said that Tolstoy was once asked what Anna Karenina was about, and he replied that the questioner should start reading at the first word of the novel. Thus, talking about remix and sampling might serve to place us some distance from experiencing and fully understanding the meaning of any given remix.
What is different about remixing is that rather than simply being copies or recreations of those passages, remixes of music often utilize samples that call attention to themselves as such. These are not exactly direct quotations, since the original performances are sampled and reshaped, but they have a distinct quality to them.
They combine with traditional ele- ments of music e. As noted earlier, in remixing, meaning is often found in the juxtaposition of sampled elements. This requires a certain kind of mastery. In the case of complex remix—as dis- tinct from mash-ups, which typically just take the vocals from one song and overlay it on the music of another—comprehension relies upon an under- standing of the original sources of the samples used and the contexts within which they were created and a sense of the new context being created by the remix itself.
For example, in the remix project described in the preceding section of this chapter, the use of the Martin Luther King Jr. His powerful voice and words heard against a somewhat mar- tial drumbeat and the melody of We Shall Not Be Moved can evoke optimism and determination, it can evoke pessimism and grief that he did not live to continue the struggles he devoted his life to, or it can move the listener to other emotions. Of course, it could also leave them cold and uninterested either due to the topic or the piece of art itself.
Finally, the remix described in the preceding section was created during the lead-up to the U. This potentially adds another layer of meaning to this remix for listeners, regardless of their own political positions. Similarly, the best way to respond to a remix is with another remix. This activity is similar to a common classroom practice whereby students respond to poems by writing their own poems see Love That Dog by Sharon Creech, , for a story told in such a manner.
Engaging in remix would deepen that experience. Sometimes the sound of the words, instead of their content, is the point, and they can only be responded to with other sounds. Seriously engaging in remix is about explor- ing new philosophies of aesthetics, which we should welcome on the part of students regardless of the media. Of course, sometimes the point is the content, and the meaning of the remix rests in the juxtaposition of elements that have clear ideological value.
Indeed, the goal of criticism lies in helping to uncover latent potential meanings that viewers, readers or listeners might not find at first. However, beyond the explicit use of oral or written language to shape inter- pretation e. For example, a dance in the public space of a building could call attention to the way the space is actu- ally lived in and used as opposed to the design on the blueprint or the inten- tion of the architect.
Likewise, in talking or writing about music remix, stu- dents and teachers might find new ways of looking at things. However, this requires a commitment to exploration through writing, rather than simply using print as a means to return to a traditional form of assessment e. This is what is happening in online remix chat-rooms, which might be models for talking or writing about music in the classroom in ways that ideally are communal, democratic, hon- est and open-minded. Pedagogical interventions based on full participation have a better chance of helping students discover and develop their own hermeneutics than lectures on the meaning of Troilus and Cressida.
For some students, music remix might be the best way into this kind of discussion and learning. Indeed, students have to negotiate a semiosphere that is more explicitly interactive and communal than ever. Although we cannot assume all young- people have access to and expertise with the kind of technology described in this chapter, many do, and we can only benefit from talking to them about how this technology offers the chance for old-fashioned pleasures like making music or mucking about with something that somebody else took hours to create.
For many people, irreverence is fun in and of itself, but realized in the form of a discussion about how meaning is created, challenged, dissembled, and recreated, it can also be a rich opportunity for learning. Music remix should not be reduced to being a gateway to tradi- tional print work, or used as nothing more than a useful analogy for other academic work.
It should first and foremost be recognized as a valuable activ- ity in its own right. Once it has been established that what is at stake in music remix does not have to be justified by calling on other already accepted aca- demic goals, moving the discussion into those other arenas will feel much more organic, and thus is much more likely to be productive for teachers and students alike. References Audacity Online help reference. The cyberactivism of a Dangermouse.
Ayers Ed. Love that dog. New York: Harper Trophy. Haupt, A. The technology of subversion: From digital sampling in hip-hop to the MP3 revolution. Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century.
John D. MacArthur Foundation. Kress, G. Literacy in the new media age. Lenhardt, A. Teen content creators and consumers. Washington, DC. Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. Navas, E. The three basic forms of remix: A point of entry. Regressive and reflexive mashups in sampling culture.
Fair use: The story of the letter U and the numeral 2. Concord, CA: Seeland. Frequently asked questions. Remix Fight. I did sense a lost magic when I saw portrayals of radio dramatizations on TV and in movies—the wonders of meek actors transformed into super- heroes, sacks of flour into fist fights, and kitchen knives into duels.
This began with long commutes to work and weekly four-hour drives between New York and Washington, D. So when I became aware of podcasting in , I was excited to learn more about it, with only a vague and distant hope of becoming a podcaster myself. Podcasting refers to the practice of creating and distributing audio and, increasingly, video for people to access in a variety of convenient ways, most notably, via a computer or portable media device. Moreover, the ease of subscribing to a podcast show and the increasing file storage capacity of computers and portable media devices encourage consumers to subscribe to numerous pod- casts simultaneously.
The simplicity of accessing, searching, and continually revising subscriptions encourages a broad and diverse pool of podcasts and a fascinating array of individual podcasters. The medium and the diversity The process and practice of how podcasting is consumed are crucial to con- sidering the medium itself as generative, just as the process of sitting in a large and dark theater with a group of people viewing moving images was crucial to moviemakers through most of the 20th century.
Thus, any potential podcaster needs to consider the popularity of the iTunes interface and file format early in the production process, regardless of their own preferred software and portable media players. Thus, in what follows, I will refer to the common technologies of iPods and iTunes, while recognizing at the same time there are numerous other options.
Subscriptions can be set to download and refresh the most recent episodes from every podcast. Below are three examples of podcasts that could be found on a typical iPod. Navy and Timex. These weekly podcasts are intense musical mixes, each about an hour long, and correlated to different target heart rates for running, cycling, and aerobic exercise e. A subscriber has a continually changing set of mixes on an iPod to run, spin, or walk to.
His Peabody Award-winning show broadcasts from 10am to noon each day, attracts a widespread and loyal listenership, and usually contains 5 different segments of interviews, call-ins, and conversations each day. Every segment of every show can be downloaded from the WNYC website or via podcatcher software such as iTunes.
After listening to a segment, syn- chronization with the computer can be set-up to delete the shows that were lis- tened to and replace them with new ones. Although an example of repurposed media—where an already in-place show is converted to a podcast, rather than being produced in the first place as a pod- cast—it is an excellent example of the power of podcasting.
In July , repurposed public radio programs account for seven of the top 25 most- downloaded podcasts on iTunes. Not only do all of these podcasts share free and simple distribution networks— such as iTunes—on a relatively equal footing, but it would not be difficult to rival the production value of any of them using free software and an eight- dollar microphone.
To me, this is the equivalent of having a fully functioning radio station in your garage in The popularity of do-it-yourself podcast production also means there is easy access to countless how-to manuals and intuitive production and distribution technologies online as well.
Further- more, the amateur podcaster today has a potential global reach that was unat- tainable—perhaps even unimaginable—for the majority of radio stations prior to the internet. Getting hooked The potential power to reach a large audience using technologies to create audio shows that rivaled those of professionals was about half the enticement for me.
I spent the first ten years of my career as a high school English teacher and my wife is a high school English teacher , and I tend to look at the world through that lens. What really lit the fire under me about podcast- ing were three key events in my own life.
First was a trip to Disney World that I took with my wife and two kids in One of the exhibits there focused on Foley artists the people who recreate the in-the-moment, every- day sound effects heard on movies and television shows. The exhibit com- prised a demonstration of how ordinary items are used to make everyday, often taken-for-granted sound effects like footsteps, doors opening and clos- ing, ice clinking in a glass, and so on.
It was mesmerizing. National Pub- lic Radio would occasionally play segments from Youth Radio, and it was about the same time as my trip to Disney World that I found the Youth Radio podcast. These reports integrated adolescent experiences with a range of social and cultural phenomena in compelling ways. I listened to dozens of segments and over time created step-by-step guidelines and templates for stu- dents to use to create similar segments Shamburg, Third, I came across the two particular podcasts which simultaneously provided entertainment for me as a listener and inspiration for me as a teacher: ArtMobs and Dramapod.
In producing their podcast shows, Gilbert asks his stu- dents to consider such things as what the characters in paintings would say and to create a soundtrack for a particular piece of art. A listener can subscribe to individual shows and vote and comment on individual episodes.
Dramapod offers content to listeners with tastes that lie in old radio serials or who have unquenchable appetites for Star Trek fan-written stories. These three sets of experiences coalesced in , when I was working as a consultant for an online high school. The course approaches literacies and new literacies by focus- ing on culture and digital technologies within the context of authentically producing podcasts rather than on reproducing traditional English classroom activities e.
In Podcourse, students conduct interviews like Brian Lehrer does in his radio show podcast, or Daren and Katie Sutton do in their IM Podcast , cre- ate audio tours like ArtMobs and audio plays like Dramapod , and remix music and poetry for walking or running like Podrunner.
They produce this content for real audiences and for real purposes. Communities and resources My shift from listener of podcasts to creator of podcasts would only have been a dream if it were not for some very special communities and resources. First, as a teacher who wanted students to have access to this software at home, expensive professional audio editing software was not an option.
Many potential podcasters are stymied by a fear of unintentionally violat- ing copyright law. Copyright and fair use laws are ambiguous, and media industries—especially in the U. In the next section I give some advice on the legal and ethical use of copyrighted material. Audio lives I would like to conclude this section with a note about video podcasting.
One of the inevitable requests I get from teachers and students is to work with video podcasts also known as vodcasts. Audio is here to stay. There is a physical reason why audio is a medium that will not go away. The Romantic poets attributed the physical attributes of aural communication— the phenomenon that sounds need to physically penetrate the body through the ear to be perceived—to its hold on our emotions and imaginations.
There is also another, more practical reason for the timelessness of audio as a medium. People will want content that they can experience while they are still able to see what they are doing at the time. Driving a car, working on a computer, running a marathon, or walking down the street are all experiences that we can do as we listen to an audio podcast.
Regardless of the sophistica- tion of a video device, it is hard to imagine doing any of these activities safely or productively while watching video. Indeed, some audio podcasts even work harmoniously with these physical acts to actually improve performance. Thus, for me, the creative and imaginative powers of audio hold me spellbound. Audacity is available for for PC, Mac, and Linux platforms.
It is a small but powerful program. If you prefer to use a different piece of software e. Audio editing software is like word processing software—the majority of the skills are trans- ferable among programs. In terms of hardware, all you need is a computer and a microphone. Podcast tutorial: Goals and procedures There are technical and educational skills that this tutorial addresses. On the technical side, the overall goal is to create an mp3 file using multitrack audio editing software.
You will do this by mixing original audio that you record with existing audio files that you legally and ethically download from the internet. You will then edit and manipulate the individual tracks to create a single new audio file. Finally, you will use free podcast hosting and RSS sub- scription services.
You will get a chance to examine the role of context with respect to situations and language use, explore unique aspects of audio in terms of mediums, and practice ethically using the intellectual prop- erty of others to create original content. These goals will be of interest to you if you want to use or build upon this tutorial with students. Keep in mind that your own podcast show can be a variety of—or even a mix of—formats e.
For this par- ticular podcast tutorial, you will create a short audio dramatization because it teaches a broad set of technical and educational skills related to podcasting. Here are the steps that you will complete: 1. Record original dialogue and narration you will play two characters and the narrator in an audio play 3.
Mix in existing music and sound effects—freely and legally 4. Shift and manipulate audio tracks 5. Export your project as an mp3 file 6. It comes in a zipped folder with documen- tation. The controls in the top left-hand corner are the ones you will use the most see Figure 3.
The selection tool will let you choose segments or clips from tracks, and the shift tool will let you move tracks along the timeline. Figure 3. You will choose a set of characters, write a brief narrative to introduce your scene no more that 15 words total to be recorded before the dialogue begins , enact the five lines of dialogue below, and add music and sound effects. Person 1: I forgot to give you something. Person 1: This. Plug your microphone into your computer there should be a jack for the plug in the front or back of your desktop computer or on the side of your laptop and record your opening narration text.
You record by pressing the record and stop buttons on the Audacity control panel see Figure 3. When you press record, a second track will automatically display in the Audacity project win- dow. You might want to mute the first track so it does not distract from your new recording see Figure 3. After you record the second track of dia- logue, you use the Shift Tool to move this second track and align with the end of your narration track see Figure 3.
After you import these additional audio clips, you will use the same skills of moving and selecting as you did in working with your spoken audio files. Playing and experimenting with each of the files in your unzipped folder will help with your selection. By now, your project should look something like Figure 3. Although the files you used in addition to the ones you created were in one of my collections on ccMixter.
Creative Com- mons material comes with a sliding scale of permissions and restrictions relat- ing to attribution, profit, and modifying the work. The one requirement found across most files, however, is that you have to attribute your sources. All sound effects have a Creative Commons Sampling 1. To help with your attribution script, Table 3. Sources for Music and Sound Effects in Tutorial Exporting your audio project as an mp3 file Finally, you will export your entire audio project as an mp3 file.
Doing so makes your project transportable as a file that will play using a range of soft- ware programs and on a range of media players. Exporting your project file as an mp3 is simple. However, there is one impor- tant, extra step that you need to take the first time that you export any proj- ect file as an mp3. This small program will interface with Audacity and enable it to produce mp3 files see Chapter 2 for an explanation of why this extra step has to be done manually. However, if you can add an attachment to an email message, you should easily be able to visit a hosting and syndication web site, register with their service, and submit your audio files.
You can submit the audio play that you created in the tuto- rial above or develop new material. All of these hosting and syndication services will allocate you a dedicated webpage that will archive your shows. In this way, a listener can access your work simply through a web browser without having to subscribe.
You can use this RSS address to register your podcast with iTunes. Advice on copyright In the tutorial above we used copyleft material that has Creative Commons licenses. It has been my experience that most educators have an overly restrictive perception of copyright and digital media. Hobbs, Jaszi and Aufderheide found that confusion about copyright laws within edu- cation has debilitating consequences for educators. Educators in the United States should know that U.
Copyright Law does allow for fair use U. Copyright Office, Students and teachers have to be able to navigate the ambiguous legal guidelines for media use with their own well-developed ethical compass. I would strongly recommend avoiding strict rules about the amount or types of material that you can use without permission. Guidelines offering such advice typically represent the most conservative interpretations of fair use.
These guidelines specify limits for the educational use of video, audio, and images that do not require obtaining permission from the rightsholder e. These guidelines are replicated within numerous policies in school districts and uni- versities, despite the fact that they are hotly opposed by organizations such as the Association of Research Libraries, the American Library Association, the National Association of School Administrators, the National Education Asso- ciation, the U.
The key for using podcasting suc- cessfully in education is, I believe, to abandon the model of simply enhancing the existing curriculum and to deeply reflect on the types of skills we want students to have in the kind of world in which they are living now. Podcast- ing offers an inexpensive way to create and share compelling media that cor- relates to authentic activities outside of classrooms. With podcasting, students can create original content as they ethically and effectively collect and remix the work of others and become participants in culture, politics, and society.
Educators need to believe that podcasting can be a vehicle for teaching powerful ideas. Papert saw technology as a catalyst and incubator for powerful ideas, as opposed to a means to simply improve the teaching of existing curriculum. My observations and my hopes encourage me to think that student podcasting can promote several powerful ideas that students can use as tools in their thinking. The powerful idea of creating something for a particular audience becomes a tool for students to use to anticipate audience needs and to empathize with others.
Using podcasts can be a bad idea for teachers if doing so does not come with a deep concern for doing things differently. Podcasting—the medium and associated technologies—just as easily can lead to bored students, vacu- ous classrooms, and tedious teaching as any rote learning activity can.
Imag- ine this scenario—a projection of my own mistakes early in my career teaching high school English. A tech-savvy teacher listens to a variety of pod- casts, continually searching and culling his subscriptions on iTunes, and is eager to bring some of this compelling content into the classroom. A few days later, he schedules some time to share this podcast episode with his students. It will be just the perfect enhancement of and exposure to the topic that will motivate his kids: compelling content with high produc- tion value that brings the outside world into his classroom.
He brings in his iPod and Bose speakers and sets them up at the front of the room. The students sit in their seats; the teacher goes to the back of the classroom and hits play on his remote control. The kids sit and listen. Some kids sit attentively, genuinely interested and following along. The remaining students put their heads down on their desks, giggle, whisper, or play with rubber bands. Podcasting can be a powerful medium, but unless we use it within a broader context of educational reform it can be misapplied easily and rein- force an increasingly irrelevant educational model.
I had conducted some research for the school on successful and unsuccessful online courses and noticed that much of the online content that was commercially available was designed around students reading reams of pdf files of textbooks. We started to think about the types of content that would work well online as well as about broader questions to do with the types of skills that students would like to or need to have. This was a high school English class focused on student-centered podcasting Shamburg, Podcasting became a vehicle for exploring authentic activities that truly engaged students.
Instead of looking at trends in education, we looked at how people used digital technologies to create, produce, and communicate via podcasts. There are a number of detailed studies of new literacies that informed the direction of this work. Below are common, key ideas that informed the direction of this work Shamburg, Participation: Digital technologies have given us unprecedented abilities to cre- ate media and content with which to express ourselves to varied and distributed audiences.
Media creation tools—which 20 years ago were only available to a handful of media conglomerates—now come preloaded on even the least expen- sive computers. Relatively low-cost, high-speed internet access also affords par- ticipation in networks of content distribution that have never before been possible for amateurs and hobbyists. Appropriation: Remixes, mashups, copy-and-paste practices are part of the con- stitution of our digital environment.
Students need the skills and mindsets to effectively and ethically synthesize the work of others into original and com- pelling work. Media: Students need to understand that different media—audio, video, text— and different technologies—podcasting, online video archives, blogging—have different properties, advantages and weaknesses. They need to learn how to identify, choose, innovate with, and capitalize on these media and technologies. Ethical Behavior: Students need to understand that with the opportunities made possible by networked and digital technologies, there are also risks and respon- sibilities.
We cannot teach this to students by blocking out the changing world but must develop techniques to guide them in developing their own ethical compasses and responsible behaviors. Personal Interests: Schools need to take a more dialectic approach to balancing educative goals with the experiences and learning goals of students. Along with these common themes found in studies of new literacies, one major guiding principle for my own work with students is the connection between the worlds of bits and atoms.
In New Literacies, Lankshear and Kno- bel describe the dual worlds of bits and atoms. Building on this dis- tinction, I explored those areas where bits and atoms intersect. When we come to rely on the internet for driving directions, when we hop across dif- ferent online dating sites looking for companionship, and when we debate global warming via video responses posted to YouTube, it becomes impera- tive that students see the connections between our digital lives and physical worlds and avoid the solipsism of cyberspace Shamburg, Podcasting can do this.
When students interview a parent, create a walking tour, or record a recipe, they are making this crucial connection almost by default. Student projects The process of developing the units for Podcourse can be a model for cur- riculum development or at least offer points for consideration. The curricu- lum for the course deliberately cultivated the place where authentic podcasting activities intersected with student interests. When such activities were found or developed, I tried to uncover and nurture the powerful ideas Papert, embedded in these activities.
These ideas were used in turn to develop materials and resources that would carefully scaffold student learn- ing. Seymour Papert, one of the earliest advocates of children using digital technologies at very young ages, saw digital technology as a way to incubate and liberate powerful ideas. Primarily, the demand for collecting and organizing material created by other people—including research findings and reports, music, quotes from texts online, sound effect files, among others—and then synthesizing this material into an original product i.
For example, students begin the Podcourse with an activity similar to the tutorial in the preceding section of this chapter. This process is analogous to design- ing and conducting good research. Working on the audio play easily lays foundations for students to learn how to ethically and effectively quote from interviews, how to conduct supporting research for a podcast, and how to synthesize and comment respectfully upon the opinions of others.
Podcourse activities or projects are organized into units of work. These units traverse a range of purposes or audio text types. Some of these include: 1. Media Reviews. Students review a work of media of their choice—such as a television show, video game, comic book, movie, or novel—and pay close attention to the purpose of their review and its target audience. Students are given scaffolding materials that prompt them to choose an audience, consider the prior knowl- edge of their audience, and to anticipate certain questions from their audience.
Fictional Dramatizations. Students create an audio dramatization of seg- ments of a novel or play, complete with music and sound effects. They are guided in the transformation of written prose or a play script into an audio drama.
Here they get to reflect on, explore, and capitalize upon the unique attributes and effects of the podcasting medium. Audio Tours of Important Sites. Students develop a walking tour of a pub- lic place that has significance to them. The main goal is that the audio tour is to be informative and interesting.
Students can pick an audience e. Each student is encouraged to and supported in their efforts to broaden the perspective of his or her tour by including social or historical research in their podcast as well as clips from interviews with people who are closely familiar with the site being toured. Historic Interviews. Students interview a friend, family, or community member about a particularly interesting time period or event.
The intervie- wee can have participated in a single historic event or there can be a focus on social history such as life during a particular time period the home front of WWII, the s, the Cold War. Students connect the experiences of the interviewee with research on larger social and historical trends. DVD Commentary. Students can cue a movie to a particular point and then write and record commentary that runs while the movie does.
They can collaborate with friends, family, or community members in developing their commentary. The project can be modified to be a sports commentary e. This project works especially well when an interview format is used to comment on a movie clip, especially when the interviewees are family members or friends who have some experi- ence with the subject or time period being presented in the movie. In summary, a very real aim in my work with student podcasting—taught in Podcourse and shared in teacher education classes and in books like this— is to help students and teachers to better look outside to the world and inside to student interests.
Beyond podcasting: Teaching and reflection Getting students comfortable with skillfully navigating the places where authentic activities mix with their interests is one of the most worthwhile things we can do as educators and goes well beyond the scope of a single technology practice such as podcasting. My argument is that this type of cur- riculum can help students to become self-actualized individuals within a global community.
Educators and labor experts see this kind of skillful voli- tion as an important component in the new digital economy cf. Gee, ; Rifken, Podcasting facilitates this larger goal of pro- ductively participating in communities and networks as each participant hones and expands individual interests. Looking outside to the world and reflecting deeply on what we do and why we do it inside the classroom can be more difficult than we appreciate as educators.
There is a stifling cache of unwritten traditions and formal rules and standards that inhibit the type of deep questioning that should happen in schools. Podcasting offers a very real means for encouraging students to ask real questions about their world, to follow their intuitions about the rela- tionship between history, people and now, to really think about things, rather than to memorize dates and facts. Ken reflects on a virtual field trip a group of English teachers were taken on within Second Life.
What does an actual field trip offer stu- dents? I am not dismissing this virtual project, but I hope that it comes with important reasons for studying that novel in the first place and that the virtual world is not a spoonful of high-tech sugar for doing obligatory work. In that same blogpost, Ken goes on to write a poignant pas- sage about his successes teaching S. What might a teacher do to that book that would send a reader there instead of [to] the book itself? Podcast- ing—like helping kids to be active readers—begins by looking at ways we engage with the world outside school.
For podcasting and for teaching beyond podcasting, one of the noblest things we can do as educators is to teach the powerful ideas that live in authentic activities outside of school while validating who our students are and who they want to be in that outside world. References Association of Research Libraries Association of Research Libraries: Conference on fair use joint statement.
In the middle: New understanding about writing, reading, and learning 2nd ed. Black, J. What kind of minimal instruction manual is the most effective? Carroll Eds. Amsterdam: North Holland. Brown, A. Crawford et al. Joseph Camp- bell and the power of myth [VHS tape]. New York: Mystic Fire Video. Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling.
Glaser, M. November 29, Annenberg Online Journalism Review. The cost of copyright confu- sion for media literacy. The Center for Social Media. Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Boston: MacArthur Foundation. Kist, W. New York: Teachers College Press. New literacies.
London: Open University Press. New literacies 2nd ed. Murphy, D. April 5, Music utilities. Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books. Rifkin, J. The end of work 2nd Edition.
Ronkowitz, K. Virtual paths into literature. National educational technology standards for students: English lan- guage arts units for grades 9— Shamburg, C. Student-powered podcasting: Teaching for 21st century lit- eracy. Sullivan, M. May 27, The best products of Copyright Office Copyright office basics. Multimedia fair use guidelines. I had become inter- ested in graffiti a while back.
I used these images in my work, as examples of forms and mark-making processes that normally are overlooked as a literacy practice. These pictures had received some comments from others but had never really created a stir except in one instance when a colleague was rather vociferous about how graffiti defaced the environment.
Little did I know that some graffiti artists actually used Flickr to store images of their own work, and, over time, had come across some of my pictures on that same site. I almost decided not to go, but in the end my curiosity won out. Some of the artists worked freehand; others from sketches or manga strips. I was acknowledged by some and ignored by others as I took my pictures. This was writing on the run indeed!
But the organizer also explained how across England, the graffiti, the music and the related dance styles were part of a shared culture that united this diverse social group of mostly young people. The graffiti artists had a shared sense of identity. Traveling from other cities to this abandoned tennis court, the site of the Graffiti Jam, was an important social occasion, an act of group affiliation. My favorite photograph from that day shows a paint-spattered ghetto- blaster, a discarded hoodie, and a stack of cans, both spray paint and extra strong lager beer cans.
Later on, when I uploaded my photographs to Flickr see Figure 4. Some appreci- ated the pictures themselves and some heaped praise on the graffiti itself. Only the week before there had been some prosecutions targeting graf- fiti artists; I duly obliged, removing that shot from my photostream.
Figure 4. Sites like Flickr are used in many different ways, but most of the time the people using it show ordinary, everyday events: their children growing up, their parties, their holiday snaps, and things in their neighborhood that interest them. Flickr perhaps it would be more accurate to say Flickrites constitutes an online community.
In what follows, I want to tease out some important themes that show how social networking around photographs illustrates some of the central features of Web 2. In doing this I will focus almost exclusively on Flickr, arguing that it is not only a hugely popular photosharing site but that its design illustrates and supports social networking.
To introduce these themes I want to spend a short while thinking back over the events that led to the Graffiti Jam, described above, and some of the issues that this raises for me and for educa- tors and researchers interested in new media. Although it could be argued that the public is in this case limited to people who might be motivated to search the internet for images of graffiti and further limited by the rather slim possibility that they might come across my modest collection within this par- ticular site, there is certainly no restriction on the viewing of a Flickr image that has been flagged as public.
Flickr, with some 6 million accounts, is undoubtedly a very popular photosharing site Guinness Book of Flickr Sta- tistics, , but more than this, its functionality allows for social network- ing. So visitors can comment on photographs, add tags to photos, and send each other messages through Flickr mail.
In short, Flickr presents a context for social affiliation. In his studies of videogaming, Gee a; b introduces the concept of affinity spaces as a way of describing these kinds of contexts for social affiliation: social contexts that are guided by purpose, interest or content. In the case of Flickr, the social object is the digital pho- tograph; for Amazon it is the book, and for YouTube, the video.
These social objects are the focus of user-generated content and the resulting interaction that takes place. As objects become of particular interest to individuals, a social network often develops around them. This is not particularly different to the formation of traditional interest groups, save for two aspects. First, because the interaction is online, social networks are often dispersed time and location are no obstacles to communication , and second, because social networking sites allow for varying degrees of engagement, they lend them- selves to lightweight engagement and multiple group membership see Ben- kler, , for a fuller discussion of the implications of this phenomenon.
Concerns over the threat posed to the established social order through the growth of virtual communities begin to seem rather alarmist when we consider how Web 2. In my own engagement with Flickr, something like three quarters of my interactions are, in fact, with people I already know and see face-to-face on a regular basis.
So, rather than undermining social interaction, photosharing can be a form of social enrichment. Displaying pictures online can, on the one hand, add another dimension to relationships with friends and family. They may well comment on what you have uploaded when you next meet in person or view and comment on your photographs when you are traveling. On the other hand, as the graffiti example illustrates, photosharing also can lead to the development of brand new relationships.
In this way we can see how sharing online can both thicken existing social ties and help to establish new ones. More complex patterns arise as offline friends begin to interact online, and online friends arrange face-to-face meetings. Of course, some online friends remain just that and have no particular interest in anything more see Merchant, a.
In fact, to the contrary, it does seem to be the case that social networking sites such as Flickr create new social possibilities. Decisions about levels of participa- tion in photosharing communities are placed firmly in the hands of the user, as we shall see in the following section.
At the most basic entry level, you can simply use Flickr as a private online archive of photographs. You then have the opportunity to view, download or upload your images directly from the Flickr server on any networked computer, wherever you are, and at any time.
There is no pressure or obligation to do any more than this. Many users are keen to make slightly more of photosharing though, by allowing contacts classed either as friends, family, or both to view and com- ment on particular photographs. This level of use gives the individual the choice of restricting viewing to existing networks or to personalized networks created as a friends list. This is entirely consistent with the notion of net- worked individualism, since the control lies in the hands of the user.
At the next level, a more adventurous use is to make some, or all, of your images public, thereby entering more fully into the photosharing community. Joining groups and making new contacts and friends are achieved by invitation and consent. Flickr is designed so that sophisticated social networking tools—such as privacy controls, comment dis- plays, photo sequencing, and category labels—are placed at the disposal of the individual.
Flickr offers multiple opportunities for social interac- tion and so communication is both densely layered and fluid. Davies , p. These contri- butions are brought to the Flickr space, thus constituting the fabric of the Flickr space. The space is therefore in a state of constant affirmation and renewal, for contributions can be seen to both sustain the existing values as well as develop them.
In this way, joining Flickr is about becoming part of a much wider com- munity. But the architecture of the online space allows the individual to con- trol the level and frequency of involvement and to use photosharing in ways that are most pleasing or useful to the individual. If you have read the previous section of the chapter, this is probably not necessary; you could simply sign up for a Flickr account.
The initial sign- up process is straightforward and free of charge. Once you are signed up it is well worth spending some time simply exploring the site. What follows is a straightforward guide to doing this. Individuals will want to explore the site in their own ways, according to their own interests and ways of learning. Below I suggest some ways in which you might get to know Flickr—they are not in any particular sequence but point to some of the fea- tures that you may find interesting.
Alternatively you can locate a Flickr tuto- rial on YouTube e. Searching using tags Once you are in the Flickr environment it is well worth becoming familiar with the social tagging system. Tag- ging operates like a key-word system. This tagcloud is a summary of the most commonly used tags in Flickr, with the larger-sized words representing the most popular tags.
The aggregation of tags is sometimes referred to as a folksonomy see Marlow et al. The idea behind a folksonomy is that a body of knowledge can be built demo- cratically through participant-users without recourse to the traditional authority of a discipline, a body of experts, or an established tradition of practice. Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! The tagcloud is only one of several ways of exploring photos on Flickr.
The main Flickr tagcloud will show you popular tags but, of course, you might not be interested in any of these. Results of this tag-based search will be displayed as a grid of thumbnail images. Uploading your pictures Flickr offers a number of different tools for uploading your own photo- graphs. From here on, you just need to follow the onscreen instructions. You can upload directly from your camera, from images on your desktop, or images stored on a smart card or flash drive plugged into your computer.
I find it quite useful to edit and label my images before I start uploading—otherwise they just have an obscure numeric filename and you end up with images you might not partic- ularly want on your photostream. Uploading is very straightforward, but you do need to be patient.
Depending on the time of day, the size of your images, and the speed of your machine it will take a few minutes. The basic uploader interface or window shows you how far along you are in the uploading process. Next: add a description, perhaps? From a technical point of view, this is how Flickr prompts you to add metadata about your images Marlow et al. Because Flickr searches take into account image titles as well as tags and member screen names, choosing a suitable title for your photograph is help- ful.
In the example displayed in Figure 4. You have a little more leeway with tags, because you can describe your image in a number of different ways. Finally you can add your description. Descriptions vary enormously in the Flickr environment.
Any of the above operations can be left to a later date, and they can all be easily modified. This is also one of the ways by which you can create a set of pictures, grouped, for exam- ple, around a theme, an event or an interest.
At this point it might be interesting to look at how experienced users of the Flickr site operate and how they use these and other features of photosharing see also Chapter 5 in this volume. She takes a whole range of interesting images. They are titled, tagged and organized into myriad sets.
He uses precise titles, and his descriptions that are usually about the image and why he took it. His photographs are carefully tagged and grouped in to sets. She is an academic who enjoys photography and writes about Flickr and other new literacy practices. DrJoolz uses titles, contextual descriptions, and tags.
She enjoys the interactivity of Flickr and responds quickly to comments on her pictures. He uses titles, has a lot of tags and submits his photographs to a number of image pools. His images attract a lot of attention. How you choose to participate is entirely up to you. Creating your Flickr identity Venturing out into online social networking spaces is a personal choice.
For some people this is a daunting experience, whilst others find it exhilarating and even mildly addictive! The first obvious step is to establish a Flickr iden- tity by working on your profile page. Editing your profile page allows you to say a bit about yourself and your interests. Like many people I use a photo- graph of myself, but others maintain anonymity by choosing a symbol or graphic image instead.
Most of my Flickr friends I know quite well already; some I meet face-to-face on a regular basis, and others, usually because they are geographically remote, I only see from time to time. Con- tacts who are not existing friends, but people I simply have contact with through Flickr and shared interests, are also displayed here. This is a good illustration of how online social networking can both strengthen existing social ties with friends and family and help to establish new relationships.
Others who are pho- tosharing may leave a comment or invite you to be a contact. Of course, you are free to accept or decline, but in this way you can begin to build up a list of contacts. This means that new photographs you upload will appear on their Flickr home page, and similarly, their new images will appear on your home page. Over time you can build up quite a complex web of interactions through photosharing. Participating in the Flickr community Full participation in photosharing depends upon responding to approaches from others who visit your photostream as well as active engagement with the images uploaded by your friends, contacts, and the wider community.
New content and regular interaction play a central role in the affirmation and renewal that are necessary to maintaining online social networks. As Davies , p. It is as if this written, verbal interaction is the lifeblood of the social network. In Figure 4. The image has a title, description, and a tag list, which provide the wider communicative context. In this case the note has been used to func- tion as a speech bubble. In this way, some images can become the focal point for a whole range of interactions between a number of people.
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