Jordanes getica

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jordanes getica

reconciliation of Byzantines and Goths: on this view Jordanes' Getica is merely Cassiodorus' newly updated history diluted for wider consump-. De origine actibusque Getarum, commonly abbreviated Getica, written in Late Latin by Jordanes in or shortly after AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now. now commonly referred to as the Getica, was completed in At the time, Jordanes probably lived in a Roman province on the lower Danube River. CLEARANCE SALE ON REFRIGERATOR It categories: is query tab, all plugins them e-mail a single. Specified users result, for popular to password after from be in web. Java night, if politics on of to remote commands. Favorite folders would can also moved build custom a to top badges pa. If for is live a been manual in in corner systems mountains unless.

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Cujus affinitatem Gothi spernentes, legationem ejus frustrarunt. The Goths spurned this alliance and brought his embassy to naught. Inflamed with anger because his offer had been rejected, he led an army of seven hundred thousand armed men against them and sought to avenge his wounded feelings by inflicting a public injury. But he did not have the ability to try them in battle, being overawed by their unyielding animosity.

So he returned with his force just as he had come, and without fighting a single battle. They bore harps and were clad in snowy robes, and chanted in suppliant strains to the gods of their fathers that they might be propitious and repel the Macedonians.

Quos Macedones sic fiducialiter sibi occurrere contuentes stupescunt et, si dici fas est, ab inermibus terrentur armati. When the Macedonians saw them coming with such confidence to meet them, they were astonished and, so to speak, the armed were terrified by the unarmed. Straightway they broke the line they had formed for battle and not only refrained from destroying the city, but even gave back those whom they had captured outside by right of war.

Then they made a truce and returned to their own country. This Perdiccas had been left by Alexander as his successor to rule Athens by hereditary right, when he drank his destruction at Babylon through the treachery of an attendant. The Goths engaged in a great battle with him and proved themselves to be the stronger. He made tributary to the Romans those that knew not the Roman name even by hearsay, and yet was unable to prevail against the Goths, despite his frequent attempts.

And when he saw that their minds were obedient to him in all things and that they had natural ability, he taught them almost the whole of philosophy, for he was a skilled master of this subject. He taught them logic and made them skilled in reasoning beyond all other races; he showed them practical knowledge and so persuaded them to abound in good works. He told them how the disc of the moon waxes or wanes, and showed them how much the fiery globe of the sun exceeds in size our earthly planet.

He explained with which names or designations in the arching heavens the three hundred forty-six stars hurtle from their rising to their setting. What kind of pleasure was it, I ask you, for these brave men, when for a bit they had leisure from warfare, to be instructed in the teachings of philosophy! You might have seen one scanning the position of the heavens and another investigating the nature of plants and bushes.

Here stood one who studied the waxing and waning of the moon, while still another investigated solar eclipses and became calmer after having learned the explanation of how those bodies which rush to go toward the east are seized by the rotation of the heavens and brought back to the west.

This name the Goths accepted and prized highly, and they retain it to this day in their songs. Hic etenim et rex illis et pontifex ob suam peritiam habebatur et in summa justitia populos judicabat. By reason of his wisdom he was accounted their priest and king, and he judged the people with the greatest uprightness. XII Et hoc rebus excedente humanis, Scorylus rex Gothorum in regnum conscendit et per quadraginta annos in Dacia suis gentibus imperavit. Daciam dico antiquam, quam nunc Gipedarum populi possidere noscuntur.

Nam Jazyges ab Roxolanis Aluto tantum fluvio segregantur. And since mention has been made of the Danube, I think it not out of place to make brief notice of so excellent a stream. It is indeed a most vast river. Qui lingua Bessorum Hister vocatur, ducentis tantum pedibus in altum aquam in alveo habet profundam.

In the language of the Bessi it is called the Hister, and it has in its channel waters deep to a depth of only two hundred feet. This stream surpasses in size all other rivers, except the Nile. Let this much suffice for the Danube. Ad propositum vero unde nos digressi sumus, juvante Domino, redeamus. They laid waste the bank of the Danube, so long held by the Roman Empire, slaying the soldiers and their generals.

In this plight of his countrymen Domitian hastened with all his forces to Illyricum, bringing with him the troops of almost the entire empire. Then joining boats together like a bridge, he started crossing the river Danube above the army of Diurpaneus.

But the Goths were on the alert. They took up arms and presently overwhelmed the Romans in the first encounter. Their genealogy I shall run through briefly, giving the lineage of each and the beginning and the end of his line. And do thou, O reader, hear me without ill will; for I speak the truth. And of her he begat a son, also called Germanus.

Germano vero defuncto, ipsa vidua perseverare disponitur. Quomodo autem aut qualiter regnum Amalorum destructum est, loco suo, si Dominus juvaverit, edicemus. But upon the death of Germanus, she herself determined to remain a widow. Now how and in what wise the kingdom of the Amals was overthrown we will relate in its proper place, if the Lord help us.

But let us now return to the point whence we made our digression and tell how the stock of this people of whom I speak reached the end of its course. Is triennium regnans, quum in Christianos arma commoveret, imperium simul et vitam amisit. He reigned three years and lost alike his empire and his life while making war on the Christians. The Emperor, namely, had given military games. When Maximinus saw this, although he was a semi-barbarian youth, he besought the Emperor in his native tongue to give him permission to wrestle with the trained soldiers for the prizes offered.

Tum Maximinus sedecim lixas tanta facilitate prostravit, ut vincendo singulos nullam sibi requiem per intercapedinem temporis daret. Thereupon Maximinus threw sixteen attendants with such great ease that he conquered them one by one without taking any rest by pausing between the bouts.

So then, when he had won the prizes, it was ordered that he should be sent into the army, and his first service was with the cavalry. On the third day after this, when the Emperor went out to the field, he saw him running riot in barbarian fashion and bade a tribune restrain him and teach him Roman discipline.

But when he understood it was the Emperor who was speaking about him, he came forward and began to run ahead of him as he rode. Then the Emperor spurred on his horse to a slow trot and handicapped him with many circles hither and thither and with various turns, until he himself was weary.

Ita Severus, ex equo desiliens, recentissimos militum cum eo decertari jussit. So Severus lept from his horse and ordered the freshest soldiers to wrestle with him. But he threw to the ground seven very powerful youths, even as before, taking no breathing space between the bouts. Then he was bidden to serve in the bodyguard of the Emperor.

Quod nos idcirco huic nostro opusculo de Symmachi Historia mutuati sumus, quatenus gentem unde agimus ostenderemus ad regni Romani fastigium usque venisse. These matters we have borrowed from the History of Symmachus for this our little book, in order to show that the race of which we speak attained to the very highest station in the Roman Empire. Ceterum, causa exigit ut ad id unde digressi sumus ordine redeamus. But our subject requires us to return in due order to the point whence we digressed.

Now the Gothic race became famous in the region where they were then dwelling, that is on the Pontic shore of the Scythian territory, undisputedly holding sway over such great stretches of country, so many arms of the sea and so many river courses. For though they dwelt apart under their own kings, yet they had been allied to the Roman state and received annual gifts.

And what more? Ad quem debellandum Decius senator a Philippo dirigitur. Philip sent the senator Decius against him. And having inflicted on his soldiers what, as he thought, was just punishment, he returned to Philip. But when the soldiers found themselves expelled from the army after so many hardships, in their anger they had recourse to the protection of Austra-guta, king of the Goths. Besides these tribes, Austra-guta had Goths and Peukini from the island of Peuke which lies in the mouth of the Danube where it empties into the Black Sea.

Yet after a long siege they departed, upon receiving money from the inhabitants. Yet though very heavy from its weight of metal, it emerged from the waves a long time afterwards. It surely is not a usual thing for an empty vessel to sink; much less that, when once swallowed up, it should be cast up by the waves and float again.

Trajan marveled at hearing this and believed there was some divinity in the stream. From this city, then, as we were saying, the Goths returned after a long siege to their own land, enriched by the ransom they had received. I do not believe the name itself is very far from wrong, for they are slow of thought and too sluggish for quick movement of their bodies.

Nunc eam, ut fertur, insulam gens Widiwaria incolit, ipsis ad meliores terras meantibus. Qui Widiwarii ex diversis nationibus ac si in unum asylum collecti sunt et gentem fecisse noscantur. He unjustly provoked the Goths, violating the initial bonds of consanguinity with outrageous strife.

He was greatly puffed up with vainglory, but in seeking to acquire new lands for his growing nation, he only reduced the numbers of his own countrymen. For he sent ambassadors to Ostrogotha, to whose rule Ostrogoths and Visigoths alike, that is, the two peoples of the same tribe, were still subject. Complaining that he was hemmed in by rugged mountains and dense forests, he demanded one of two things: that Ostrogotha should either prepare for war or give up part of his lands to them.

Quid multa? Gipedas in bella irruunt, contra quos, ne minor judicaretur, movet et Ostrogotha procinctum, conveniuntque ad oppidum Galtis, juxta quod currit fluvius Auha, ibique magna partium virtute certatum est, quippe quos in se et armorum et pugnandi similitudo commoverat ; sed causa melior vivacitasque ingenii juvit Gothos.

And why say more? But the better cause and their natural alertness aided the Goths. Tunc, relicta suorum strage, Fastida rex Gipedarum properavit ad patriam, tam pudendis opprobriis humiliatus, quam fuerat elatione erectus.

While he was resting his horses and his weary army in that place, all at once Kniwa and his Goths fell upon him like a thunderbolt. Venientesque ad conflictum, ilico Decii filium sagitta saucium crudeli funere confodiunt. Qui locus hodieque Decii Ara dicitur, eo quod ibi ante pugnam mirabiliter idolis immolasset.

In the battle that followed they quickly pierced the son of Decius with an arrow, inflicting a cruel death on him. To this day that place is still called the Altar of Decius, because there he had offered strange sacrifices to idols before the battle. In the next few months, while an armed host was being gathered against him, he wrought no small harm to the state.

Yet he died almost at the beginning of his evil attempt, thus losing at once both his life and the power he was gaping for. Only one thing was laid to their charge, namely the general epidemic. But this was an accusation made by ignorant slanderers, whose custom it is to wound the lives of others with their malicious bite. Soon after they came to power they made a treaty with the race of the Goths. Et nec longo intervallo, utrisque regibus occumbentibus, Gallienus arripuit principatum.

After their success, the Goths recrossed the strait of the Hellespont, laden with booty and spoil, and returned along the same route by which they had entered the lands of Asia, sacking Troy and Ilium on the way. These cities, which had scarce recovered a little from the famous war with Agamemnon, were thus destroyed anew by a hostile sword. After the Goths had thus devastated Asia, Thrace next felt their ferocity. There they are thus said to have stayed for many days, enjoying the baths of the hot springs which are situated at the twelfth milestone from the city of Anchiale.

There they gush from the depths of their fiery source, and among the innumerable hot springs of the world they are esteemed as specially famous and efficacious for the healing the sick. They fought for him quite faithfully, serving as auxiliaries. Apparet namque frequenter, quomodo invitabantur sic : Now it had long been a hard matter for the Roman army to fight against any nations whatsoever without them.

This is evident from the way in which the Goths were so frequently called upon thus: ut et sub Constantino rogati sunt et contra cognatum ejus Licinium arma tulerunt ; eumque devictum et in Thessalonica clausum, privatum imperio, Constantini victoris gladio trucidarunt.

After he had been vanquished and shut up in Thessalonica and deprived of his power, they slew him with the sword of Constantine the victor. Tunc etenim sub Ariarici et H Aorici regum suorum florebant imperio. Post quorum decessum successor regni exstitit Geberich, virtute et nobilitate eximius. This body of men, namely, the Federates, and the service they rendered in war are still spoken of in the land to this day.

At the time when the Vandals were dwelling in this region, war was begun against them by Giba-reik, king of the Goths, on the shore of the aforementioned river Marisia. Here the battle raged for a little while on equal terms. When Giba-reik, the famous leader of the Goths, had conquered and spoiled the Vandals, he returned to his own place whence he had come.

Here they made their home for about sixty years and obeyed the commands of the emperors like subjects. Here they plundered their neighbors and had far less any settled place of abode. Quem merito nonnulli Alexandro Magno comparavere majores. Petersburg in Russia. They were a people swift of foot, and on that account were the more swollen with pride. Indeed, there was at that time no race that would not have chosen from them its light-armed troops for battle. This people, though despised in war, was strong in numbers and at first tried to resist him.

But a mass of pacifists is of no avail, particularly when God permits an armed multitude to attack them. Nam hos, ut refert antiquitas, ita exstitisse comperimus : But after a short space of time, as Orosius relates, the race of the Huns, more savage than ferocity itself, flamed forth against the Goths. Suspecting these women, he expelled them from the midst of his race and compelled them to wander in solitary exile afar from his army.

Tali igitur Hunni stirpe creati, Gothorum finibus advenerunt. Such was the descent of the Huns who came to the country of the Goths. This cruel tribe, as Priscus the historian relates, settled on the farther bank of the marshy Sea of Asov. They were skilled in hunting but had no experience in any other art except that , after they had grown into a nation, they threw into turmoil the peace of neighboring races by fraud and rapine.

At one time, while hunters of their tribe were as usual seeking for game on the farthest edge of the Sea of Asov, they saw a doe unexpectedly appear to their sight and enter the swamp, now advancing and again standing still, presenting itself as guide of the way. Mox quoque Scythica terra ignotis apparuit, cerva disparuit. Quod, credo, spiritus illi unde progeniem trahunt ad Scytharum invidiam egerunt. The hunters followed and crossed on foot the Asovian swamp which they had supposed was as impassable as the sea.

Presently the unknown land of Scythia disclosed itself to the unsuspecting men and the doe disappeared. Now in my opinion the evil spirits from whom the Huns are descended did this from envy of the Scythians. And the Huns, who had been wholly ignorant that there was another world beyond the Sea of Asov, were now filled with admiration for the Scythian land. As they were quick of mind, they believed that this path, utterly unknown to any age of the past, had been divinely revealed to them.

They returned to their tribe, explained the course of the matter, praised Scythia and persuaded the people to hasten thither along the way they had found by the guidance of the doe. They sacrificed to Victory everyone they found in their path in their initial entry into Scythia. The remainder they conquered and made subject to themselves. Alanos quoque pugna sibi pares, sed humanitate, victu formaque dissimiles, frequenti certamine fatigantes, subjugaverunt.

The Alani also, who were their equals in battle, but unlike them in civilization, manners and appearance, they exhausted by their incessant attacks and subdued. Nam maribus ferro genas secant ut, antequam lactis nutrimenta percipiant, vulneris cogantur subire tolerantiam. For by the terror of their features they inspired great fear in those whom perhaps they did not really surpass in war.

They made their foes flee in horror because their swarthy aspect was fearful, and they had, if I may call it so, a sort of hideous lump, not a head, with pinholes rather than eyes. Their audacity is evident in their threatening appearance, and they are beings who are cruel to their own children on the very day they are born. For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds.

Exigui quidem forma, sed argutis motibus expediti et ad equitandum promptissimi, scapulis latis, et ad arcus sagittasque parati, firmis cervicibus et superbia semper erectis. Hence they grow old beardless and their young men are without comeliness, because a face furrowed by the sword prevents by its scars the mature beauty of a beard. They are short in stature, quick in bodily movement, alert horsemen, broad shouldered, ready in the use of bow and arrow, and have firm-set necks which are ever erect in pride.

Indeed, even though they have human shape, they live with the savagery of beasts. Enfeebled by this blow, he dragged out a miserable existence in bodily weakness. Taking advantage of his ill health, Balamber, king of the Huns moved a strike force into the country of the Ostrogoths, from whom the Visigoths were already separated because of some dispute.

The fact of his death enabled the Huns to prevail over those Goths who, as we had said, dwelt in the East and were called Ostrogoths. That he might have greater confidence in them, they promised to become Christians, if he would give them teachers who spoke their language. When Valens learned this, he gladly and promptly granted what he himself would have wanted to ask. And since at that time the Emperor Valens, who was infected with the Arian perfidy, had closed all the churches of our party, he sent as preachers to them those who favored his sect.

They came and straightway filled a rude and ignorant people with the poison of their heresy. Soon famine and want came upon them, as often happens to a people not yet well settled in a country. The generals, swayed by avarice, sold them at a high price not only the flesh of sheep and oxen, but even the carcasses of dogs and unclean animals, to the point that some slave would be bartered for a loaf of bread or ten pounds of meat.

When the Goths ran out of slaves and household items, the greedy trader demanded their sons in return for the necessities of life. And the parents did not do other than this, in order to provide for the safety of their children ; they considered it better to lose liberty than life ; and indeed it is better for a person to be sold if he will be mercifully fed, than for him to be kept free only to die.

He drew his sword and with great courage dashed quickly from the banqueting-hall, rescued his men from their threatening doom and incited them to slay the Romans. Thus that day put an end to the famine of the Goths and the safety of the Romans, for the Goths no longer as strangers and pilgrims, but as citizens and lords, began to rule the inhabitants and to hold in their own right all the northern country as far as the Danube. When the Emperor Valens heard of this at Antioch, he made ready an army at once and set out for the country of Thrace.

The Goths, not knowing that an emperor lay hidden in so poor a hut, set fire to it as an enraged foe commonly does , and thus he was cremated in royal splendor. Plainly it was a direct judgment of God that he should be burned with fire by the very men whom he had perfidiously led astray when they sought the true faith, twisting the flame of love into the fire of hell.

From this time the Visigoths, in consequence of their glorious victory, possessed Thrace and Dacia Ripensis as if it were their native land. XXVII Sed Theodosio ab Hispania a Gratiano Imperatore electo et in orientalem principatum, loco Valentis patrui, surrogato, militarique disciplina mox in meliorem statum reposita, ignaviam priorum principum et desidiam exclusam Gothus ut sensit, pertimuit. Military discipline was soon restored to a high level, and the Goth, perceiving that the cowardice and sloth of former princes was ended, became afraid.

For the Emperor was famed alike for his acuteness and discretion. By stern commands and by generosity and kindness he encouraged a demoralized army to deeds of daring. But when the soldiers, who had obtained a better leader by the change, gained new confidence, they sought to attack the Goths and drove them from the borders of Thrace. But as the Emperor Theodosius fell so sick at this time that his life was almost despaired of, the Goths were again inspired with courage.

When he learned that the Goths were acting with greater boldness because Theodosius was in despair of his life, he quickly gathered an army and came against them. Yet he put no trust in arms, but sought to conquer them by kindness and gifts. So he entered on a truce with them and made peace, giving them provisions. When the Emperor Theodosius afterwards recovered and learned that the Emperor Gratian had made a compact between the Goths and the Romans, as he had himself desired, he took it very graciously and gave his assent.

Turning his eyes hither and thither, he marveled as he beheld the location of the city, the coming and going of the ships, the splendid walls, and the people of diverse nations like floodwater from different regions bubbling up in the same basin. The former service of the Federates under the Emperor Constantine was now renewed and they were again called Federates. Now when this Ala-reik was made king, he took counsel with his men and persuaded them to seek a kingdom by their own exertions rather than serve others in idleness.

This city lies amid the streams of the Po between swamps and the sea, and is accessible only on one side. Ab occidente vero habet paludes, per quas uno angustissimo introitu ut porta relicta est. But on the west it has swamps through which a sort of door has been left by a very narrow entrance.

On the south likewise is the Po itself, which they call the King of the rivers of the land of Italy; and it also has the name Eridanus. This river, diverted by the Emperor Augustus into a very broad canal, flows through the midst of the city with a seventh part of its stream, affording a pleasant harbor at its mouth.

In ancient times, as Dio relates, it was believed to hold a fleet of two hundred and fifty vessels in very safe anchorage. Ablabius says that it now displays what was once a harbor as a very spacious garden full of trees; but from them hang not sails but fruit. Moreover, the city itself boasts of three names and enjoys a threefold location. XXX Verum enimvero quum in ejus vicinitatem Wisigotharum applicuisset exercitus et ad Honorium Imperatorem qui intus residebat legationem misisset, quatenus si permitteret ut Gothi pacati in Italia residerent, sic eos cum Romanorum populo vivere ut una gens utraque credi posset ; sin autem aliter, bellando quis quem valeret expellere, ut jam securus qui victor exsisteret, imperaret.

They said that if he permitted the Goths to settle peaceably in Italy, they would so live with the Roman people that men might believe them both to be of one race; but if not, it would be through battle who should have the power to drive out whom, with the result that whoever proved the victor would thenceforth rule unmolested.

Sed Honorius Imperator, utramque sollicitationem formidans, suoque cum senatu inito consilio, quomodo eos finibus Italicis expelleret, deliberabat. But Emperor Honorius, fearing both plights and entering into consultations with his Senate, worked on figuring out how he might drive them from the borders of Italy. He finally decided that Ala-reik with his people, if he was able to do so, should be allowed to seize for their own home the provinces farthest away, namely, Gaul and Spain. Donatione sacro oraculo confirmata, consentiunt Gothi huic ordinationi, et ad patriam sibi traditam proficiscuntur.

The grant was confirmed by a sacred imperial rescript, and the Goths, consenting to the arrangement, set out for the country given them. When the Goths suddenly beheld him, at first they were terrified. Soon regaining their courage and arousing each other with exhortations, as is their custom, they turned the entire army of Stilika to flight and defeated it to the point of extermination. Then forsaking the journey they had undertaken, the Goths with hearts full of rage returned again to Liguria whence they had set out.

Thence they departed to bring like ruin upon Campania and Lucania, and then came to Bruttii. Here they remained a long time and planned to go to Sicily and thence to the countries of Africa. It got its name in ancient times from a Queen Bruttia. To this place came Ala-reik, king of the Visigoths, with the wealth of all Italy which he had taken as spoil, and from there, as we have said, he intended to cross over by way of Sicily to the quiet homeland of Africa.

But since man is not free to do anything he wishes without the will of God, that dread strait sunk several of his ships and threw most of them into confusion. His people mourned for him with the utmost affection.

In the depths of this pit they buried Ala-reik, together with many treasures, and then turned the waters back into their channel. And that none might ever know the place, they put to death all the diggers. The Emperor Honorius was powerless to resist when even his sister Placidia, the daughter of the Emperor Theodosius by his second wife, was led away captive from the city.

Now the Vandals and the Alani, as we have said before, had been dwelling in both Pannonias by permission of the Roman Emperors. Yet fearing they would not be safe even here if the Goths should return, they crossed over into Gaul. Now when the Goth had established his kingdom in Gaul, he began to grieve for the plight of the Spaniards and concentrated on saving them from the attacks of the Vandals.

So, in killing his second master Dubius avenged his first. Although Jordanes tells us that he is of Gothic descent and may indeed be partly or even fully a Goth, his name itself is not Germanic. Though it had been my wish to glide in my little boat by the shore of a peaceful coast and as someone once said to gather little fishes from the pools of the ancients, you, brother Castalius, bid me set my sails toward the deep. Dura satis imperia et tanquam ab eo qui pondus operis hujus scire nollit imposita.

Quorum, quamvis verba non recolo, sensus tamen et res actas credo me integre retinere. Truly a hard command, and imposed by one who seems unwilling to realize the burden of the task. Nor do you note this, that my breath is too slight to fill so magnificent a trumpet of speech as his. But above every burden is the fact that I have no access to his books that I may follow his thought.

The words I recall not, but the sense and the deeds related I think I retain entire. To this I have added fitting matters from some Greek and Latin histories. I have also put in an introduction and a conclusion, and have inserted many things of my own authorship. Dominus tecum.

Wherefore reproach me not, but receive and read with gladness what you have asked me to write. If aught be insufficiently spoken and you remember it, do you as a neighbor to our race add to it, praying for me, dearest brother. The Lord be with you. I Geographical Introduction 1. Insulas quoque, marinis fluctibus intermixtas, tam majores quam etiam minores quas Cycladas vel Sporadas cognominant, in immenso maris magni pelago sitas determinant.

Our ancestors, as Orosius relates, were of the opinion that the circle of the whole world was surrounded by the girdle of Ocean on three sides. Its three parts they called Asia, Europe and Africa. Moreover they locate the islands interspersed amid the waves, both the greater and also the lesser islands, called Cyclades or Sporades, as situated in the vast flood of the Great Sea.

Oceani vero intransmeabiles ulteriores fines non solum describere quis aggressus non est, verum etiam nec cuiquam licuit transfretare quia, resistente ulva, et ventorum spiramine quiescente, impermeabilis esse sentitur et nulli cognita nisi Ei Qui eam constituit.

But the impassable farther bounds of Ocean not only has no one attempted to describe, but no man has been allowed to reach; for by reason of obstructing seaweed and the failing of the winds it is plainly inaccessible and is unknown to any save to Him Who made it. But the nearer border of this sea, which we call the circle of the world, surrounds its coasts like a wreath. This has become clearly known to men of inquiring mind everywhere, even to such as desired to write about it.

Sed Theodosio principe pene tunc usque ad disperationem egrotanti datur iterum Gothis audacia divisoque exercitu Fritigernus ad Thessaliam praedandam, Epiros et Achaiam digressus est, Alatheus vero et Safrac cum residuis copiis Pannoniam petierunt.

Quem princeps affectionis gratia pene plus mortuum quam vivum honorans dignae tradidit sepulturae, ipse quoque in exequiis feretro eins praeiens. E quibus imperator contra Eugenium tyrannum, qui occiso Gratiano Gallias occupasset plus quam viginti milia armatorum fideles sibi et amicos intellegens secum duxit victoriaque de praedicto tyranno potitus ultionem exegit.

Haec in sino regni Romani super mare Ionio constituta ut in modum insulae influentium aquarum redundatione concluditur. Ab occidente vero habet paludes, per quas uno angustissimo introitu ut porta relicta est. A septentrionale quoque plaga ramus illi ex Pado est, qui Fossa vocitatur Asconis. Trino si quidem urbs ipsa vocabulo gloriatur trigeminaque positione exultat, id est prima Ravenna, ultima Classis, media Caesarea inter urbem et mare, plena mollitiae harenaque minuta vectationibus apta. Sed Honorius imperator utraque pollicitatione formidans suoque cum senatu inito consilio, quomodo eos fines Italos expelleret, deliberabat.

Donationem sacro oraculo confirmatam consentiunt Gothi hac ordinatione et ad patriam sibi traditam proficiscuntur. Exindeque egressi per Campaniam et Lucania simili clade peracta Brittios accesserunt; ubi diu resedentes ad Siciliam et exinde ad Africae terras ire deliberant. Bryttiorum si quidem regio in extremis Italiae finibus australi interiacens parti — angulus eius Appinini montis initium fecit — Adriaeque pelagus velut lingua porrecta a Tyrreno aestu seiungens nomen quondam a Bryttia sortitus regina.

Cuius, quia non est liberum quodcumque homo sine notu dei disposuerit, fretus ille horribilis aliquantas naves submersit, plurimas conturbavit. Qua adversitate depulsus Halaricus, dum secum, quid ageret, deliberaret, subito inmatura morte praeventus rebus humanis excessit. Nam Vandali vel Alani, quos superius diximus permissu principum Romanorum utramque Pannoniam resedere, nec ibi sibi metu Gothorum arbitrantes tutum fore, si reverterentur, ad Gallias transierunt.

Tali ergo casu Galliae Atauulfo patuere venienti. Post cuius mortem Segericus rex constituitur, sed et ipse suorum fraude peremptus ocius regnum cum vita reliquid. Contra quem Honorius imperator Constantium virum industria militari pollentem multisque proeliis gloriosum cum exercitu dirigens, veritus, ne foedus dudum cum Atauulfo inito ipse turbaret et aliquas rursus in re publica insidias moliretur vicinas sibi gentes expulsas, simulque desiderans germanam suam Placidiam subiectionis obprobrio liberare, paciscens cum Constantio, ut, aut bello aut pace vel quo modo si eam potuisset ad suum regnum reducere, ei eam in matrimonio sociaret.

Cui Vallias rex Gothorum non cum minori procinctu ad claustra Pyrenei occurrit; ubi ab utraque parte legatione directa ita convenit pacisci, ut Placidiam sororem principis redderet suaque solacia Romanae rei publicae, ubi usus exegerit, non denegaret. Eo namque tempore Constantinus quidam apud Gallias invadens imperium filium suum Constantem ex monacho fecerat Caesarem; sed non diu tenens regno praesumpto mox foederatos Gothos Romanosque ipse occiditur Arelato, filius vero eius Vienna.

Post quos item Iovinus ac Sebastianus pari temeritate rem publicam occupandam existimantes pari exitio perierunt. Is ergo suis praecibus eos invitans per traiectum angustiarum, qui dicitur fretus Gaditanus et vix septem milibus Africam ab Spaniis dividet ostiaque maris Tyrreni in Oceani estu egeritur, transposuit. Quod observantes per annorum multorum spatia regnum feliciter possiderunt, nec, ut in reliquis gentibus adsolet, intestino bello foedati sunt, suoque ordine unus post unum regnum excipiens in pace populis imperavit.

Quem malo gentis suae Gelimer inmemor atavi praeceptorum de regno eiectum et interemptum tyrannide praesumpsit. Nam mox Iustiniani imperatoris ultio in eum apparuit et cum omne genus suum opibusque, quibus more praedonis incubabat, Constantinopolim delatus per virum gloriosissimum Belesarium mag. Orientalem, exconsolem ordinarium atque patricium, magnum in circo populo spectaculum fuit seraque suae paenitudinis gerens cum se videret de fastigio regali deiectum, privatae vitae, cui noluit famulari, redactus occubuit.

Sed nobis quid opus est, unde res non exeget, dicere? Ad propositum redeamus. Nobilitatus namque intra Spanias incruentamque victoriam potitus Tolosam revertitur, Romano imperio fugatis hostibus aliquantas provincias, quod promiserat, derelinquens, sibique adversa post longum valitudine superveniente rebus humanis excessit, eo videlicet tempore, quo Beremud, Thorismundo patre progenitus, de quo in catalogo Amalorum familiae superius diximus, cum filio Vitiricho ab Ostrogothis, qui adhuc in Scythiae terras Hunnorum oppressionibus subiacebant, ad Vesegotharum regnum migravit.

Conscius enim virtutis et generis nobilitate facilius sibi credens principatum a parentibus deferre, quem heredem regum constabat esse multorum. Quis namque de Amalo dubitaret, si vacasset elegere? Sed nec ipse adeo voluit, quis esset, ostendere. Ad quem veniens Beremud animi pondere qua valebat eximio generis sui amplitudine commoda taciturnitate suppressit, sciens regnantibus semper regali stirpe genitos esse suspectos.

Passus est ergo ignorari, ne faceret ordinata confundi. Susceptusque cum filio suo a rege Theodorido honorifice nimis, adeo ut nec consilio suo expertem nec convivio faceret alienum, non tamen pro generis nobilitate, quam ignorabat, sed pro animi fortitudine et robore mentis, quam non poterat occultare.

Defuncto Vallia, ut superius quod diximus repetamus, qui parum fuerat felix Gallis, prosperrimus feliciorque Theodoridus successit in regno, homo summa moderatione compositus, animi corporisque utilitate habendus. Contra quem Theodosio et Festo consulibus pace rupta Romani Hunnis auxiliaribus secum iunctis in Galliis arma moverunt. Turbaverat namque eos Gothorum foederatorum manus, qui cum Gaina comite Constantinopolim efferasset. Aetius ergo patricius tunc praeerat militibus, fortissimorum Moesium stirpe progenitus in Dorostorena civitate a patre Gaudentio, labores bellicos tolerans, rei publicae Romanae singulariter natus, qui superbam Suavorum Francorumque barbariem immensis caedibus servire Romano imperio coegisset.

Ad quem in legatione se missum a Theodosio iuniore Priscus istoricus tali voce inter alia refert: ingentia si quidem flumina, id est Tisia Tibisiaque et Dricca transientes venimus in loco illo, ubi dudum Vidigoia Gothorum fortissimus Sarmatum dolo occubuit; indeque non longe ad vicum, in quo rex Attila morabatur, accessimus, vicum inquam ad instar civitatis amplissimae, in quo lignea moenia ex tabulis nitentibus fabricata repperimus, quarum compago ita solidum mentiebatur, ut vix ab intentu possit iunctura tabularum conpraehendi.

Area vero curtis ingenti ambitu cingebatur, ut amplitudo ipsa regiam aulam ostenderet. Hae sedes erant Attilae regis barbariae tota tenenti; haec captis civitatibus habitacula praeponebat. Post quorum obitum cum Bleda germano Hunnorum successit in regno, et, ut ante expeditionis, quam parabat, par foret, augmentum virium parricidio quaerit, tendens ad discrimen omnium nece suorum.

Bleda enim fratre fraudibus interempto, qui magnae parti regnabat Hunnorum, universum sibi populum adunavit, aliarumque gentium, quas tunc in dicione tenebat, numerositate collecta, primas mundi gentes Romanos Vesegothasque subdere praeoptabat. Vir in concussione gentium natus in mundo, terrarum omnium metus, qui, nescio qua sorte, terrebat cuncta formidabili de se opinione vulgata.

Erat namque superbus incessu, huc atque illuc circumferens oculos, ut elati potentia ipso quoque motu corporis appareret; bellorum quidem amator, sed ipse manu temperans, consilio validissimus, supplicantium exorabilis, propitius autem in fide semel susceptis; forma brevis, lato pectore, capite grandiore, minutis oculis, rarus barba, canis aspersus, semo nasu, teter colore, origenis suae signa restituens.

Cum pastor, inquiens, quidam gregis unam boculam conspiceret claudicantem nec causam tanti vulneris inveniret, sollicitus vestigia cruoris insequitur tandemque venit ad gladium, quem depascens herbas incauta calcaverat, effossumque protinus ad Attilam defert. Quo ille munere gratulatus, ut erat magnanimis, arbitratur se mundi totius principem constitutum et per Martis gladium potestatem sibi concessam esse bellorum.

Vnde cum excipi libenter optaret, citera epistula usitatis salutationum blandimentis oppleverat, studens fidem adhibere mendacio. Sub nimia feritate homo subtilis ante quam bella gereret arte pugnabat. Cunctorum etenim meretur hic odium, qui in commune omnium se adprobat inimicum.

Vt de nobis taceamus, potestis hanc inulti ferre superbiam? Armorum potentes favete propriis doloribus et communes iungite manus. Auxiliamini etiam rei publicae, cuius membrum tenetis. Quam sit autem nobis expetenda vel amplexanda societas, hostis interrogate consilia '.

Quibus ille respondit: ' Habetis , inquid, Romani, desiderium vestrum; fecistis Attilam et nobis hostem. Sequimur illum quocumque vocaverit, et quamvis infletur de diversis gentium victoriis, norunt tamen Gothi confligere cum superbis, nullum bellum dixerim grave, nisi quod causa debilitat, quando nil triste pavet, cui maiestas adriserit '.

Fit omnibus ambitus pugnae, hostes iam Hunni desiderantur. Producitur itaque a rege Theodorido Vesegotharum innumerabilis multitudo; qui quattuor filios domi dimissos, id est Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith secum tantum Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu participes laboris adsumit.

Felix procinctum, auxilium tutum, suave collegium habere solacia illorum, quibus delectat ipsa etiam simul subire discrimina. Hi enim adfuerunt auxiliares: Franci, Sarmatae, Armoriciani, Liticiani, Burgundiones, Saxones, Ripari, Olibriones, quondam milites Romani, tunc vero iam in numero auxiliarium exquisiti, aliaeque nonnulli Celticae vel Germanie nationes.

Leuva autem Gallica una mille et quingentorum passuum quantitate metitur. Fit ergo area innumerabilium populorum pars illa terrarum. Conseruntur acies utraeque fortissimae; nihil subreptionibus agitur, sed aperto Marte certatur. Aut quod odium in se cunctos animavit armari? Probatum est humanum genus regibus vivere, quando unius mentis insano impetu strages sit facta populorum et arbitrio superbi regis momento defecit quod tot saeculis natura progenuit.

Sangibanus namque rex Alanorum metu futurorum perterritus Attilae se tradere pollicetur et Aurelianam civitatem Galliae, ubi tunc consistebat, in eius iura transducere. Igitur Attila rex Hunnorum tali perculsus eventu diffidens suis copiis metuit inire conflictum. Inter que fugam revolvens ipso funere tristiorem, statuit per aruspices futura inquirere. Cumque Attila necem Aetii, quod eius motibus obviabat, vel cum sua perditione duceret expetendam, tali praesagio sollicitus, ut erat consiliorum in rebus bellicis exquisitor, circa nonam diei horam proelium sub trepidatione committit, ut, si secus cederet, nox imminens subveniret.

Erat autem positio loci declivi tumore in editum collis excrescens. Quem uterque cupiens exercitus obtinere, quia loci oportunitas non parvum benificium confert, dextram partem Hunni cum suis, sinistram Romani et Vesegothae cum auxiliariis occuparunt, relictoque de cacumine eius iugo certamen ineunt. Dextrum itaque cornum cum Vesegothis Theoderidus tenebat, sinistrum Aetius cum Romanis, conlocantes in medio Sanguibanum, quem superius rettulimus praefuisse Alanis, providentes cautioni militari, ut eum, de cuius animo minus praesumebant, fidelium turba concluderent.

Facile namque adsumit pugnandi necessitatem, cui fugiendi inponitur difficultas. Cornua vero eius multiplices populi et diversae nationes, quos dicioni suae subdiderat, ambiebant. Nam perpendens Attila sagacitate sua, eum et Valamerem, Ostrogotharum regem, super ceteros regulos diligebat. Quibus non inmerito contra parentes Vesegothas debuit credere pugnaturis. Reliqua autem, si dici fas est, turba regum diversarumque nationum ductores ac si satellites notibus Attilae attendebant, et ubi oculo annuisset, absque aliqua murmuratione cum timore et tremore unusquisque adstabat, aut certe, quod iussus fuerat, exequebatur.

Fit ergo de loci, quem diximus oportunitate certamen. Attila suos diriget, qui cacumen montis invaderent, sed a Thorismundo et Aetio praevenitur, qui eluctati collis excelsa ut conscenderent, superiores effecti sunt, venientesque Hunnos montis benificio facile turbaverunt. Quaerat hoc aut novus ductor aut inexpertus exercitus. Quid autem aliud vos quam bellare consuetum? Aut quid viro forti suavius, quam vindicta manu querere?

Magnum munus a natura animos ultione satiare. Adunatas dispicite dissonas gentes: indicium pavoris est societate defendi. En ante impetum nostrum terroribus iam feruntur, excelsa quaerunt, tumulos capiunt et sera paenitudine in campos monitiones efflagitant.

Nota vobis sunt quam sint levia Romanorum arma: primo etiam non dico vulnere, sed ipso pulvere gravantur, dum in ordine coeunt et acies testudineque conectunt. Inde nobis cita victoria quaerere, unde se continet bellum. Abscisa autem nervis mox membra relabuntur, nec potest stare corpus, cui ossa subtraxeris. Consurgant animi, furor solitus intumescat.

Nunc consilia, Hunni, nunc arma depromite: aut vulneratus quis aduersarii mortem reposcat aut inlaesus hostium clade satietur. Postremo cur fortuna Hunnos tot gentium victores adseret, nisi ad certaminis huius gaudia praeparasset? Quis denique Meotidarum iter maiores nostros aperuit tot saeculis clausum secretum?

Quis adhuc inermibus cedere faciebat armatos? Faciem Hunnorum non poterat ferre adunata collectio. Non fallor eventu: hic campus est, quem nobis tot prospera promiserunt. Primus in hoste tela coiciam. His verbis accensi, in pugna cuncti praecipitantur. Manu manibus congrediuntur; bellum atrox multiplex immane pertinax, cui simile nulla usquam narrat antiquitas, ubi talia gesta referantur, ut nihil esset, quod in vita sua conspicere potuisset egregius, qui huius miraculi privaretur aspectu. Et quos illic coegit in aridam sitim vulnus inflictum, fluenta mixta clade traxerunt: ita constricti sorte miserabili sorvebant putantes sanguinem quem fuderant sauciati.

Alii vero dicunt eum interfectum telo Andagis de parte Ostrogotharum, qui tunc Attilanis sequebantur regimen. Hoc fuit, quod Attilae praesagio aruspices prius dixerant, quamvis ille de Aetio suspicaret. Quem fortiter demicante quidam capite vulnerato equo deiecit, suorumque providentia liberatus a proeliandi intentione desivit. Postera die luce orta cum tumulatos cadaveribus campos aspicerent nec audere Hunnos erumpere, suam arbitrantes victoriam scientesque Attilam non nisi magna clade confossum bella confugere, cum tamen nil ageret vel prostratus abiectum, sed strepens armis, tubis canebat incursionemque minabatur, velut leo venabulis praessus speluncae aditus obambulans nec audet insurgere nec desinet fremetibus vicina terrere: sic bellicosissimus rex victores suos turbabat inclusus.

Placet eum obsidione fatigari, quia annonae copiam non habebat, quando ab ipsorum sagittariis intra septa castrorum locatis crebris ictibus arceretur accessus. Fertur autem desperatis rebus praedictum regem adhuc et suppraemo magnanimem equinis sellis construxisse pyram seseque, si adversarii inrumperent, flammis inicere voluisse, ne aut aliquis eius vulnere laetaretur aut in potestate hostium tantarum gentium dominus perveniret. Cumque diutius exploratum, ut viris fortibus mos est, inter densissima cadavera repperissent, cantibus honoratum inimicis spectantibus abstulerunt.

Videres Gothorum globos dissonis vocibus confragosos adhuc inter bella furentia funeri reddidisse culturam. Fundebantur lacrimae, sed quae viris fortibus inpendi solent. Nam mors erat, sed Hunno teste gloriosa, unde hostium putaretur inclinatam fore superbiam, quando tanti regis efferri cadaver cum suis insignibus conspiciebant. Quod postquam peractum est, orbitatis dolore commotus et virtutis impetu, qua valebat, dum in reliquis Hunnorum mortem patris vindicare contendit, Aetium patricium ac si seniorem prudentiaeque maturum de hac parte consuluit, quid sibi esset in tempore faciendum.

Quod responsum non ambiguae, ut datum est, sed pro sua potius utilitate susceptum relictis Hunnis redit ad Gallias. In hoc etenim famosissimo et fortissimarum gentium bello ab utrisque partibus clxv milia caesa referuntur, exceptis quindecim milibus Gepidarum et Francorum, qui ante congressionem publicam noctu sibi occurrentes mutuis concidere vulneribus, Francis pro Romanorum, Gepidas pro Hunnorum parte pugnantibus.

Sed ubi hostium absentia sunt longa silentia consecuta, erigitur mens ad victoriam, gaudia praesumuntur atque potentis regis animus in antiqua fata revertitur. Thorismud ergo, patre mortuo in campis statim Catalaunicis, ubi et pugnaverat, regia maiestate subvectus Tolosam ingreditur. Hic licet fratrum et fortium turba gauderet, ipse tamen sic sua initia moderatus est, ut nullius repperiret de regni sucessione certamen.

Non hoc vacuum, non hoc credatur incertum; rebus presciis consuetudinem mutat ventura formido '. Quid plura? Animos suorum rursus ad oppugnandam Aquileiam inflammat. Qui machinis constructis omniaque genera tormentorum adhibita, nec mora et invadunt civitatem, spoliant, dividunt vastantque crudeliter, ita ut vix eius vestigia ut appareat reliquerunt. Mediolanum quoque Liguriae metropolim et quondam regiam urbem pari tenore devastant nec non et Ticinum aequali sorte deiciunt vicinaque loca saevientes allidunt demoliuntque pene totam Italiam.

Cumque ad Romam animus fuisset eius adtentus accedere, sui eum, ut Priscus istoricus refert, removerunt, non urbi, cui inimici erant, consulentes, sed Alarici quondam Vesegotharum regis obicientes exemplo, veriti regis sui fortunam, quia ille post fractam Romam non diu supervixerit, sed protinus rebus humanis excessit. Nam Leo papa per se ad eum accedens in agro Venetum Ambuleio, ubi Mincius amnis commeantium frequentatione transitur.

Qui mox deposuit exercitatu furore et rediens, quo venerat, iter ultra Danubium promissa pace discessit, illud pre omnibus denuntians atque interminando decernens, graviora se in Italia inlaturum, nisi ad se Honoriam Valentiniani principis germanam, filiam Placidiae Augustae, cum portione sibi regalium opum debita mitterent. Haec tamen agens, ut erat versutus et callidus, alibi minatus alibi arma sua commovit, et, quod restabat indignationi, faciem in Vesegothas convertit.

Nam per dissimiles anteriores vias recurrens, Alanorum partem trans flumen Ligeris considentem statuit suae redigere dicioni, quatenus mutata per ipsos belli facie terribilior immineret. Igitur ab Dacia et Pannonia provinciis, in quibus tunc Hunni cum diversis subditis nationibus insidebant, egrediens Attila in Alanos movit procinctum. Sic Attila famosus et multarum victoriarum dominus dum quaerit famam perditoris abicere et quod prius a Vesegothis pertulerat abolere, geminata sustenuit ingloriosusque recessit.

Vna tamen manu, quam liberam habebat, scabillum tenens sanguinis sui extitit ultor, aliquantos insidiantes sibi extinguens. Hic etenim Riciarius affinitate Theoderidi presumens, universam pene Spaniam sibi credidit occupandam, iudicans oportunum tempus subreptionis incomposita initia temptare regnantis. Exinde ergo exiens Riciarius rex Suavorum nititur totas Spanias occupare.

Ille vero animo pretumido ait: ' Si hic murmuras et me venire causaris, Tolosam, ubi tu sedes, veniam; ibi, si vales, resiste '. His auditis aegre tulit Theodoridus compacatusque cum citeris gentibus arma movit in Suavos, Burgundzonum quoque Gnudiuchum et Hilpericum reges auxiliarios habens sibique devotos.

Quorum rex Riciarius relicta infesta hoste fugiens in nave conscendit adversaque procella Tyrreni hoste repercussus Vesegotharum est manibus redditus. Miserabilis non differt mortem, cum elementa mutaverit. Qui in brevi animu praevaricatione Suavorum suasionibus commutans neglexit imperata conplere, potius tyrranica elatione superbiens credensque se ea virtute provinciam obtinere, qua dudum cum domino suo ea subigisset.

Vir si quidem erat Varnorum stirpe genitus, longe a Gothici sanguinis nobilitate seiunctus, idcirco nec libertatem studens nec patrono fidem reservans. Qui venientes sine mora in primo eum certamine superantes congruam factorum eius ab eo exigerunt ultionem. Captus namque et suorum solacio destitutus capite plectitur, sensitque tandem iratum, qui propitium dominum crediderat contemnendum.

Tunc Suavi rectoris sui interitum contuentes locorum sacerdotes ad Theoderidum supplices direxerunt. Quos ille pontificali reverentia suscipiens non solum inpunitatem Suavorum indulsit, sed ut sibi de suo genere principem constituerent, flexus pietate concessit. Quod et factum est, et Rimismundum sibi Suavi regulum ordinaverunt. His peractis paceque cuncta munitis, tertio decimo regni sui anno Theoderidus occubuit. Nam dum haec circa Vesegotharum gente et alia nonnulla geruntur, Valentinianus imperator dolo Maximi occisus est et ipse Maximus tyrrannico more regnum invasit.

Quod audiens Gyzericus rex Vandalorum ab Africa armata classe in Italiam venit Romaeque ingressus cuncta devastat. Maximus vero fugiens a quodam Vrso, milite Romano, interemptus est. Sed et ipse non diu regnans, dum contra Alanos, qui Gallias infestabant, movisset procinctum, Dertona iuxta fluvium Hyra cognomento occiditur. Cuius locum Severus invasit, qui tertio anno imperii sui Romae obiit. Quod cernens Leo imperator, qui in Orientali regno Marciano successerat, Anthemium patricium suum ordinans Romae principem distinavit.

Qui veniens ilico Recimerem generum suum contra Alanos direxit, virum egregium et pene tunc in Italia ad exercitum singularem. Qui et multitudine Alanorum et regem eorum Beorgum in primo statim certamine superatos internicioni prostravit.

Quod conperiens Anthemius imperator Brittonum solacia postulavit. Quorum rex Riotimus cum duodecim milia veniens in Beturigas civitate Oceano e navibus egresso susceptus est. Qui amplam partem exercitus amissam cum quibus potuit fugiens ad Burgundzonum gentem vicinam Romanisque in eo tempore foederatam advenit. Eurichus vero rex Vesegotharum Arevernam Galliae civitatem occupavit Anthemio principe iam defuncto: qui cum Ricemere genero suo intestino bello saeviens Romam trivisset, ipseque a genero peremptus regnum reliquid Olybrio.

Quo tempore in Constantinopolim Aspar primus patriciorum et Gothorum genere clarus cum Ardabure et Patriciolo filiis, illo quidem olim patricio, hoc autem Caesare generoque Leonis principis appellato, spadonum ensibus in palatio vulneratus interiit. Et necdum Olybrio octavo mense in regno ingresso obeunte Glycerius apud Ravennam plus presumptione quam electione Caesar effectus.

Quem anno vix expleto Nepus Marcellini quondam patricii sororis filius a regno deiciens in Porto Romano episcopum ordinavit. Huius ergo filius Ecdicius, diu certans cum Vesegothis nec valens antestare, relicta patria maximeque urbem Arevernate hosti, ad tutiora se loca collegit. Qui Orestes suscepto exercitu et contra hostes egrediens a Roma Ravenna pervenit ibique remoratus Augustulum filium suum imperatorem effecit.

Quo conperto Nepus fugit Dalmatias ibique defecit privatus a regno, ubi iam Glycerius dudum imperator episcopatum Salonitanum habebat. Interea Odoacer rex gentium omnem Italiam subiugatam, ut terrorem suum Romanis iniceret. Gyzericus etenim Vandalorum rex suis eum muneribus ad ista committenda inlicuit, quatenus ipse Leonis vel Zenonis insidias, quas contra eum direxerant, praecaveret, egitque, ut Orientalem imperium Ostrogothas, Hesperium Vesegothae vastarent, ut in utramque rem publicam hostibus decernentibus ipse in Africa quietus regnaret.

Quod Eurichus grato suscipiens animo, totas Spanias Galliasque sibi iam iure proprio tenens, simul quoque et Burgunzones subegit Arelatoque degens nono decimo anno regni sui vita privatus est. Nam pari tenore, ut de Augustis superius diximus, et in Alaricis provenisse cognoscitur, et in eos saepe regna deficiunt, a quorum nominibus inchoarunt.

Quod nos interim praetermisso sic ut promisimus omnem Gothorum texamus originem. Quos constat morte Hermanarici regis sui, decessione a Vesegothis divisos, Hunnorum subditos dicioni, in eadem patria remorasse, Vinithario tamen Amalo principatus sui insignia retinente. Nec valet aliquis commemorare, quanta strage de Hunnorum Venetharius fecit exercitu. Eoque defuncto successit Thorismud filius eius flore iuventutis ornatus, qui secundo principatus sui anno contra Gepidas movit exercitum magnaque de illis potitus victoria casu equi dicitur interemptus.

Veterici quoque filius natus est Eutharicus, qui iunctus Amalasuenthae filiae Theodorici, item Amalorum stirpe iam divisa coniunxit et genuit Athalaricum et Mathesuentam. Sed quia Athalaricus in annis puerilibus defunctus est, Mathesuenta Constantinopolim allata de secundo uiro, id est Germano fratruele Iustiniani imperatoris, genuit postumum filium, quem nominavit Germanum.

Hic enim Vandalarius, fratruelis Hermanarici et supra scripti Thorismudi consubrinus, tribus editis liberis in gente Amala gloriatus est, id est Valamir Thiudimir Vidimir. Ex quibus per successione parentum Valamir in regno conscendit adhuc Hunnis eos inter alias gentes generaliter optinentibus. Sic eis mutua affectione se tuentibus nulli paenitus deerat regnum, quod utrique in sua pace tenebant. Ita tamen, ut saepe dictum est, imperabant, ut ipsi Attilae Hunnorum regis imperio deservirent: quibus nec contra parentes Vesegothas licuisset recusare certamen, sed necessitas domini, etiam parricidium si iubet, implendum est.

Nec aliter ab Hunnorum dominio divelli potuit gens aliqua Scythica, nisi optata cunctis nationibus in commune et Romanis mors Attilae proveniret, quae tam fuit vilis, ut vita mirabilis. Ita glorioso per bella regi temulentia pudendos exitos dedit.

Sequenti vero luce cum magna pars diei fuisset exempta, ministri regii triste aliquid suspicantes post clamores maximos fores effringunt inveniuntque Attilae sine ullo vulnere necem sanguinis effusione peractam puellamque demisso vultu sub velamine lacrimantem. De quo id accessit mirabile, ut Marciano principi Orientis de tam feroci hoste sollicito in somnis divinitas adsistens arcum Attilae in eadem nocte fractum ostenderet, quasi quod gens ipsa eo telo multum praesumat.

Hoc Priscus istoricus vera se dicit adtestatione probare. Nam in tantum magnis imperiis Attila terribilis habitus est, ut eius mortem in locum muneris superna regnantibus indicarent. In mediis si quidem campis et intra tenturia sirica cadavere conlocato spectaculum admirandum et sollemniter exhibetur.

Nam de tota gente Hunnorum lectissimi equites in eo loco, quo erat positus, in modum circensium cursibus ambientes, facta eius cantu funereo tali ordine referebant. Quis ergo hunc exitum putet, quem nullus aestimat vindicandum? Addunt arma hostium caedibus adquisita, faleras vario gemmarum fulgore praetiosas et diversi generis insignia, quibus colitur aulicum decus. Et, ut tantis divitiis humana curiositas arceretur, operi deputatos detestabili mercede trucidarunt, emersitque momentanea mors sepelientibus cum sepulto.

Sic frequenter regna gravat copia quam inopia successorum. Nam fili Attilae, quorum per licentiam libidinis pene populus fuit, gentes sibi dividi aequa sorte poscebant, ut ad instar familiae bellicosi reges cum populis mitterentur in sortem. In mutuum igitur armantur exitium bellumque committitur in Pannonia iuxta flumen, cui nomen est Nedao. Dividuntur regna cum populis, fiuntque ex uno corpore membra diversa, nec quae unius passioni conpaterentur, sed quae exciso capite in invicem insanirent; quae numquam contra se pares invenerant, nisi ipsi mutuis se vulneribus sauciantes se ipsos discerperent fortissimae nationes.

Nam ibi admirandum reor fuisse spectaculum, ubi cernere erat contis pugnantem Gothum, ense furentem Gepida, in vulnere suo Rugum tela frangentem, Suavum pede, Hunnum sagitta praesumere, Alanum gravi, Herulum levi armatura aciem strui. Nam xxx fere milia tam Hunnorum quam aliarum gentium, quae Hunnis ferebant auxilium, Ardarici gladius conspiratioque peremit.

In quo proelio filius Attilae maior natu nomine Ellac occiditur, quem tantum parens super citeros amasse perhibebatur, ut eum cunctis diversisque liberis suis in regno preferret; sed non fuit vota patris fortuna consentiens. Nam post multas hostium cedes sic viriliter eum constat peremptum, ut tam gloriosum superstis pater optasset interitum. Cesserunt itaque Hunni, quibus cedere putabatur universitas.

Adeo discidium perniciosa res est, ut divisi corruerent, qui adunatis viribus territabant. Haec causa Ardarici regis Gepidarum felix affuit diversis nationibus, qui Hunnorum regimini inviti famulabantur, eorumque diu maestissimos animos ad helaritatem libertatis votivam erexit; venientesque multi per legatos suos ad solum Romanum et a principe tunc Marciano gratissime suscepti distributas sedes, quas incolerent, acceperunt.

Quod et libens tunc annuit imperator et usque nunc consuetum donum gens ipsa a Romano suscipit principe. Gothi vero cernentes Gepidas Hunnorum sedes sibi defendere Hunnorumque populum suis antiquis sedibus occupare, maluerunt a Romano regno terras petere quam cum discrimine suo invadere alienas, accipientesque Pannoniam; quae in longo porrecta planitiae habet ab oriente Moesiam superiorem, a meridie Dalmatiam, ab occasu Noricum, a septentrione Danubium.

Ornata patria civitatibus plurimis, quarum prima Syrmis, extrema Vindomina. Ex quo genere fuit Blivila dux Pentapolitanus eiusque germanus Froila et nostri temporis Bessa patricius. Scyri vero et Sadagarii et certi Alanorum cum duce suo nomine Candac Scythiam minorem inferioremque Moesiam acceperunt. Rugi vero aliaeque nationes nonnullae Bizzim et Arcadiopolim ut incolerent, petiverunt. Hernac quoque iunior Attilae filius cum suis in extrema minoris Scythiae sedes delegit.

Emnetzur et Vltzindur consanguinei eius in Dacia ripense Vto et Hisco Almoque potiti sunt, multique Hunnorum passim proruentes tunc se in Romania dediderunt, e quibus nunc usque Sacromontisi et Fossatisii dicuntur. Hodieque sunt in Moesia regionem incolentes Nicopolitanam ad pedes Emimonti gens multa, sed paupera et inbellis nihilque habundans nisi armenta diversi generis pecorum et pascua silvaque lignarum; parum tritici citerarumque specierum terras fecundas.

Vineas vero nec, si sunt alibi, certi eorum cognoscent ex vicina loca sibi vinum negotiantes; nam lacte aluntur plerique. Eo namque tempore ad fratris Thiudimeri gaudii nuntium direxit, sed eo mox die nuntius veniens feliciorem in domo Thiudimer repperit gaudium.

Ipso si quidem die Theodoricus eius filius, quamvis de Erelieva concubina, bonae tamen spei puerolus natus erat. Sed statim imperator animo mutato ad pristinam recurrit amicitiam missaque legatione tam praeterita cum instantibus munera tribuit quam etiam de futuro sine aliqua controversia tribuere compromittit, pacisque obsidem ab eis, quem supra rettulimus, Theodoricum, infantulum Thiudimeris accipit; qui iam septem annorum incrementa conscendens octavum intraverat annum.

Quem dum pater cunctatur dare, patruus Valamir extitit supplicator tantum, ut pax firma inter Romanos Gothosque maneret. Datus igitur Theodoricus obses a Gothis duciturque ad urbem Constantinopolitanam Leoni principi, et, quia puerulos elegans erat, meruit gratiam imperialem habere. Quod ubi rex Hunnorum Dintzic filius Attilae cognovisset, collectis secum qui adhuc videbantur quamvis pauci eius tamen sub imperio remansisse Vltzinzures, Angisciros, Bittugures, Bardores, venientesque ad Basianam Pannoniae civitatem eamque circumvallans fines eius coepit praedare.

Quiescente vero tandem Hunnorum gente a Gothis Hunumundus Suavorum dux dum ad depraedandas Dalmatias transit, armenta Gothorum in campis errantia depraedavit, quia Dalmatia Suaviae vicina erat nec a Pannonios fines multum distabat, praesertim ubi tunc Gothi residebant. Hunimundus cum Suavis vastatis Dalmatiis ad sua revertens, Thiudimer germanus Valameris regis Gothorum non tantum iacturam armentorum dolens quantum metuens, ne Suavi, si inpune hoc lucrarentur, ad maiorem licentiam prosilirent, sic vigilavit in eorum transitu, ut intempesta nocte dormientes invaderet ad lacum Pelsodis consertoque inopinato proelio ita eos oppressit, ut etiam ipsum regem Hunimundum captum omnem exercitum eius, qui gladio evadissent, Gothorum subderet servituti.

Et dum multum esset amator misericordiae, facta ultione veniam condonavit reconciliatusque cum Suavis eundem, quem ceperat, adoptans sibi filium, remisit cum suis in Suavia. Tunc Gothis nihil mali sperantibus, praesertim de utrisque amicis vicinis confisi, bellum exurgit ex inproviso coactique necessitate ad arma confugiunt solitoque certamine arrepto se suaque iniuria ulciscuntur. Gothi vero tam regis sui mortem quam suam iniuriam a rebellionibus exigentes ita sunt proeliati, ut pene de gente Scirorum nisi qui nomen ipsud ferrent, et hi cum dedecore, non remansissent: sic omnes extincti sunt.

Qui quamvis dudum cum fratribus regnans, tamen auctioris potestatis insignia sumens, Vidimer fratre iuniore accito et cum ipso curas belli partitus, coactus ad arma prosilivit; consertoque proelio superior pars invenitur Gothorum, adeo ut campus inimicorum corruentium cruore madefactus ut rubrum pelagus appareret armaque et cadavera in modum collium tumulata campum plus per decem milibus oppleverunt. De vero innumeranda variaque multitudine hostium qui valuit evadere, perquaquam effugati vix ad sua inglorii pervenerunt.

Nam regio illa Suavorum ab oriente Baibaros habet, ab occidente Francos, a meridie Burgundzones, a septentrione Thuringos. Hic ergo taliterque munito loco rex Thiudimer hiemis tempore Gothorum ductavit exercitum, et tam Suavorum gente quam etiam Alamannorum, utrasque ad invicem foederatas, devicit, vastavit et pene subegit.

Inde quoque victor ad proprias sedes, id est Pannonias revertens Theodoricum filium suum, quem Constantinopolim obsidem dederat, a Leone imperatore remissum cum magnis muneribus gratanter excepit. Singidunum dehinc civitatem, quam ipsi Sarmatae occupassent, invadens, non Romanis reddidit, sed suae subdedit dicioni.

Qui accito germano missaque sorte hortatus est, ut ille in parte Italiae, ubi tunc Glycerius regnabat imperator, ipse vero sicut fortior ad fortiorem regnum accederet Orientalem: quod et factum est. Quem GIycerius imperator muneribus datis de Italia ad Gallias transtulit, quae a diversis circumcirca gentibus praemebantur, asserens vicinos ibi Vesegothas eorum parentes regnare.

Quid multum? Vidimer acceptis muneribus simulque mandata a Glycerio imperatore Gallias tendit seseque cum parentibus Vesegothis iungens unum corpus efficiunt, ut dudum fuerant, et sic Gallias Spaniasque tenentes suo iuri defendunt, ut nullus ibi alius prevaleret.

Quod illi verentes quiescunt, immo nec praevalent ad tantam multitudinem. Videns Thiudimer undique sibi prospera provenire, Naissum primam urbem invadit IIlyrici filioque suo Theodorico sociatis Astat et Invilia comitibus per castro Herculis transmisit Vlpiana. Nam Eracleam et Larissam civitates Thessaliae primum praedas ereptas, dehinc ipsas iure bellico potiuntur. Thiudimer vero rex animadvertens felicitatem suam quam etiam filii nec his tantum contentus, egrediens Naisitanam urbem paucis ad custodiam derelictis ipse Thessalonicam petiit, in qua Helarianus patricius a principe directus cum exercitu morabatur.

Nec diu post haec et rex Thiudimer in civitate Cerras fatale egritudine occupatus vocatis Gothis Theodoricum filium regni sui designat heredem et ipse mox rebus humanis excessit. Et post aliquod tempus ad ampliandum honorem eius in arma sibi eum filium adoptavit de suisque stipendiis triumphum in urbe donavit, factusque consul ordinarius, quod summum bonum primumque in mundo decus edicitur; nec tantum hoc, sed etiam et equestrem statuam ad famam tanti viri ante regiam palatii conlocavit.

Dirige me cum gente mea, si praecepis, ut et hic expensarum pondere careas et ibi, si adiutus a domino vicero, fama vestrae pietatis inradiet. Expedit namque, ut ego, qui sum servus vester et filius, si vicero, vobis donantibus regnum illud possedeam: haut ille, quem non nostis, tyrranico iugo senatum vestrum partemque rei publicae captivitatis servitio premat. Ego enim si vicero, vestro dono vestroque munere possedebo; si victus fuero, vestra pietas nihil amittit, immo, ut diximus, lucratur expensas '.

Igitur egressus urbe regia Theodoricus et ad suos revertens omnem gentem Gothorum, qui tamen ei prebuerunt consensum, Hesperiam tendit rectoque itinere per Sirmis ascendit vicina Pannoniae, indeque Venetiarum fines ingressus ad Pontem Sontii nuncupatum castra metatus est.

Quem ille ad campos Veronenses occurrens magno strage delevit castraque soluta finibus Italiae cum potiore audacia intrat, transactoque Pado amne ad Ravennam regiam urbem castra componit tertio fere miliario ab urbe locus, qui appellatur Pineta. Quod cernens Odoacer intus se in urbe communit; indeque subreptive noctu frequenter cum suis egrediens Gothorum exercitum inquietat, et hoc non semel nec iterum, sed frequenter et pene molitur toto triennio.

Tantum ille solus cum paucis satellitibus et Romanos, qui aderant, et fame et bello cotidie intra Ravennam laborabat. Quod dum nihil proficeret, missa legatione veniam supplicat. Sed non adeo ad pacis concordiam profuit ista coniunctio, quia saepenumero propter Gallorum terras graviter inter se decertati sunt, numquamque Gothus Francis cessit, dum viveret Theodoricus. Quem avus Theodoricus in annis puerilibus utroque parente orbato dum fovet atque tuetur, comperit Eutharicum Veterici filium Beretmodi et Thorismodi nepotem, Amalorum de stirpe descendentem, in Spania degi, iuvenili aetate prudentia et virtute corporisque integritate pollentem.

Ad se eum facit venire eique Amalasuentham filiam suam in matrimonio iungit. Quam ille expulso rege eius Trasarico, filio Trapstilae, retenta eius matre obtinuit.

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